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罗建波:十九大报告给世界带来了什么


中国需要继续做好“一带一路”和全球治理两篇大文章,努力推进中国由“追求自身发展”转变为“引领世界发展”,推动中国身份由国家维度走向更为宽广的全球维度,进而全面塑造中国的全球观念、全球身份和大国形象


文|罗建波  中央党校国际战略研究院中国外交研究室主任 教授



● 解读中国发展“密码”

● 分享中国发展机遇


2017年10月18日,中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会胜利召开。3068名中外记者汇聚北京,其中包括来自134个国家的上千名外国记者。十九大不仅是中国的盛会,也备受国际社会的关注。世人都在期待,如何从十九大报告中更好解读中国发展的“密码”,更多分享中国发展的机遇。

 

解读中国发展“密码”

在过去38年里,中国的发展成就可谓天翻地覆。中国从改革开放初期的一穷二白发展到经济总量世界第二,从一个农业国家发展成一个现代工业国家。中国不仅让超过6亿人口实现了减贫,也让超过6亿人口成功跨入了年收入1万美元的大关。国际社会都知道,仅仅在30多年前,中国与多数发展中国家一样贫穷,但现在中国已经成为一个有着重要全球影响力的经济大国。世人惊叹于中国的发展速度,也纷纷追问中国快速发展背后的“密码”。仔细阅读十九大报告,可以帮助我们解答心中的诸多疑惑。

中国发展模式的最根本之处,在于对独立自主和自力更生的深刻理解和一贯坚持。中国一直强调主要依靠自身力量而非依赖外部援助来寻求发展,而且在打开国门借鉴发达国家发展经验时,也是采取了“合理借鉴”而非“完全照搬”的方式,以探索适合自身国情的发展道路,这与一些发展中国家普遍依赖外援且照搬西方模式有着很大不同。十九大报告特别强调,世界上没有完全相同的政治制度模式,政治制度不能脱离特定社会政治条件和历史文化传统来抽象评判,不能定于一尊,不能生搬硬套外国政治制度模式。

中国对“社会共识”的塑造和强调,也是中国实现成功发展的重要因素。十九大报告勾划了未来三十年中国的发展目标,描绘了中国发展的基本路径,也对党和国家的重大战略进行了全面部署,其目的,就是要凝聚党心、军心和民心,形成一种举国一致对于改革、建设和发展的共识。这种超越不同民族、不同党派、不同行业、不同阶层的强大的凝聚力和向心力,是中国共产党和中国政府得以率领全国人民不断克服困难、砥砺前行的重要原因所在。

相较于其他多数发展中国家,中国还拥有有效的国家治理能力。中国不仅建立了一整套成熟的国家机构和治理体系,而且通过不断的改革创新较为成功地处理了政府与市场、国家与社会的关系,从而在充分激发社会发展活力的同时,能够较好地保持国家大政方针的稳定性和延续性,确保国家行动的有效性和高效率。十九大报告着墨最多的地方,是如何深化改革、如何完善社会治理、如何从严治党,其目的,就在于根据国情民情社情来创新治理体系,不断提高中国共产党和中国政府为人民服务的能力和水平。在过去几十年里,中国发展较多数发展中国家更快、更好,其重要原因不在于中国的政党体制的某些特殊性,而在于中国的国家基本制度更为完善,以及政府治理能力相对更高。

从一般意义上讲,中国过去近40年的发展其实是中国作为一个发展中国家追求现代化的历程。尽管中国发展模式还未定型,但中国的成功发展确实拓展了发展中国家走向现代化的途径,给世界上那些既希望加快发展又希望保持自身独立性的国家和民族提供了全新选择。尽管中国发展经验也非尽善尽美,但中国的现代化历程积累了许多经验教训,其中许多经验可以与其他国家特别是众多发展中国家相互分享。或许可以这样讲,中国的发展为人类探索发展道路提供了新的选择,为解决人类问题贡献了中国智慧和中国方案。

 

分享中国发展机遇

中国已经是一个能够对世界发展产生重大影响的大国。这样一个大国,它考虑和追求的就不仅仅只是自己国家和民族的复兴,也积极关注并推动人类共同福祉的增进。在追求中华民族伟大复兴的同时,如何更好地与世界分享中国发展机遇,如何为世界发展和全球治理贡献中国力量,自然是今天中国外交肩负的重要历史使命。十九大报告明确呼吁,各国人民同心协力,构建人类命运共同体,建设持久和平、普遍安全、共同繁荣、开放包容、清洁美丽的世界。人类命运共同体的提出,展现了当今中国外交的道义精神。

“一带一路”倡议的提出及稳步推进,就体现了中国与世界实现互利共赢共同发展的诚意和决心。十九大报告强调,继续扩大对外开放,特别是要积极促进“一带一路”国际合作,打造国际合作新平台,增添共同发展新动力。“一带一路”将联结四个人口超过十亿的大市场,即东亚经济圈超过十亿人口的大市场,欧亚大陆桥沿线超过十亿人口的大市场,南亚次大陆超过十亿人口的大市场,以及人口同样超过十亿的非洲大市场。对中国而言,“一带一路”在提升我国向东开放的同时,显著加快向西开放的步伐,构筑起方位更加平衡、领域更加宽广、时空更加开放、内外联动更加紧密的对外开放新格局。从沿线国家的角度看,“一带一路”的稳步推进有助于各国的经济发展,也有助于相关国家通过合作促进共同安全,管控分歧和争端,推动沿线国家走上共同发展的道路。从长远看,借助于不断推动的人文交流“软联通”,“一带一路”建设还能推动亚欧非各大文明的交流互鉴,促进各国、各民族间的相互理解和信任,进而推进世界文明的共同发展和繁荣。“一带一路”及其不断完善的合作机制,是新时期中国奉献给世界的重要公共产品。

国际社会有人在问,“一带一路”究竟是倡议,还是战略?其实,他们想问的是,“一带一路”到底有没有特定的地缘战略意图?我们要看到,“一带一路”倡议由中国提出和倡导,自然离不开中国政府的积极推动,也自然带有某种程度的中国烙印。但我们也要看到,“一带一路”秉持的是共商共建共享的原则,弘扬的是开放包容合作共赢的精神,它欢迎所有国家的参与和支持,也需要各国的携手合作和战略对接。“一带一路”不是中国的地缘战略工具,其目的也不是构筑一个排他性的利益集团,而恰恰相反,它要打造一个各国实现互利共赢的合作新平台,推动建设一个全新的全球发展伙伴关系。“一带一路”倡议源自中国,但“一带一路”建设则属于全世界。


2017年10月18日,中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会于上午9时在人民大会堂开幕。在北京王府井商业街、重庆解放碑步行街、北京西站、石家庄公交车上观看直播的中外民众


十九大报告特别强调,在开展对外合作时要践行对发展中国家的正确利益观,体现对周边国家的亲诚惠容和对非洲国家的真实亲诚。“正确义利观”要求我们在处理与发展中国家关系时做到义利兼顾,要讲信义、重情义、扬正义、树道义。中国提供600亿美元资金支持中非双方共同开展“十大合作计划”,提供350亿美元资金支持中东地区工业化和基础设施建设,在西非爆发埃博拉疫情后率先紧急驰援,向疫区相关国家派遣了1200多名医护人员,提供了4轮价值超过1.2亿美元的援助,都体现了中国不断增长的国际责任意识。“正确义利观”就是要把中国自身发展与广大发展中国家的发展联系起来,把中国人民利益同广大发展中国家的整体利益联系起来。这一理念的提出,旨在打造新时期中国参与南南合作的新理念,着眼于提升中国与发展中国家关系的新境界,体现了中国帮扶发展中国家的无私仁义,体现了维护世界和平与发展的国际正义,体现了新时期推动建设人类命运共同体的责任和道义。

积极参与全球治理体系变革,也显示出当今中国外交的与时俱进与远见卓识。中国不仅更加“有为”地参与全球治理,为世界经济增长、国际和平安全,以及应对全球气候变化等领域贡献了越来越多的中国力量,提供了越来越多的中国方案,也积极致力于推动既有重大国际机制的改革和完善,发起组建了一系列以共商、共建、共享为特点的国际组织及合作机制,在不断发展的全球治理体系中更加“有位”。中国参与全球治理体系建设的努力方向,就是要推动世界更为有效地应对各种全球性问题,同时携手各国共同为国际体系建制度、立规则、定方向,在国际规则制定中发出更多中国声音、注入更多中国元素,进而推动国际秩序和国际体系实现更为公平公正的发展。中国已经由国际体系的学习者和参与者,日益成为国际体系发展和完善的塑造者、建设者甚至是引领者,中国的国际影响力、感召力、塑造力得到进一步提高。

一个复兴的中国能够为世界贡献什么?如果说中国逐步实现自身13亿人口的减贫和发展本身是对世界发展的重大贡献,那么中国在实现自身发展的同时又积极推动世界的共同发展和持久和平,则是中国对世界的又一重大贡献。中国需要继续做好“一带一路”和全球治理两篇大文章,努力推动与世界的互利共赢并切实践行好对发展中国家的“正确义利观”,努力推进中国由“追求自身发展”转变为“引领世界发展”,推动中国身份由国家维度走向更为宽广的全球维度,进而全面塑造中国的全球观念、全球身份和大国形象。中国发展造福自身,也正在惠及世界。(编辑:张梅)




WhatDoes the 19th National Congress of CPC Mean to the World?


By LuoJianbo  Professor, Director, ResearchOffice for China’s Foreign Affairs, Institute for International StrategicStudies, Party School of CPC Central Committee;  Tanslated by Xu Qinduo



The19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China opened on October 18th.Some 3,068 reporters flocked to Beijing and over 1,000 of them are from 134 countries and regions around the world. The 19th Party Congress proves to be abig event which draws international attention as well as a critical meeting in China. People are eager to crack the “secret code” of the development of China from the work report delivered at the meeting and explore the opportunities they may seize upon.


The Secret Code of China’s Development

The past 38 years since the reform and opening up have witnessed sea changes inChina. While China was in a state of “poverty and blankness” at the beginning of the reform, it has become the world’s second largest economy. Originally anagrarian society, it has become a country with modern industrialization. China has not only successfully lifted more than 700 million people out of povertybut also helped more than 600 million Chinese cross the threshold of earning10,000 US dollars a year. Those who follow China’s development are aware that,as short as 30 years ago, China was as poor as most of the developing nations.But todays’ China is a major economic power with a global influence. People naturally are amazed by the unprecedented transformation and are asking for the secret of China’s sizzling economic growth. A closer look at the work report ofthe Party Congress may provide us some answers.

The fundamental point of the China model has been the in-depth understanding and close following of the principle of independence and self-reliance. China has always stressed on relying upon oneself instead of external assistance to develop acountry. When China decided to open the country to learn from the developed nations, it borrowed the experience from rich nations in a “reasonable manner”instead of “blindly copying” their models. China has made an endeavor toexplore a development road which suites its own specific national conditions,something that differs greatly from some developing nations that replicateWestern model. The report of the 19th National Congress highlights that there’sno identical political systems in the world and politician systems can’t evaluated in an abstract manner without taking into consideration of a nation’s specific social, political conditions and historical and cultural traditions. There is more one model and we can’t copy development model from another country.    

Another factor contributing to China’s success lies in the shaping of “national consensus”, which is of critical importance. The CPC work report presents adevelopment goal for next 30 years, describes the path of development, and laysdown strategic deployment for the party as well as the nation. The purpose of doing that is to unite the party, the military and the public as one, and reacha common national understanding on reform, construction and development. The cohesivenessand unity, which goes beyond ethnicity, political parties, different trades,different classes, have been the critical factor on why the CPC and the Chinese government can lead the nation to overcome the challenges, march forward anddeliver.

Compared with most of developing countries, China has demonstrated the ability ofgoverning in an effective manner. It has not only established a complete set ofnational institutions and governance mechanism but also managed well therelationship between the state and the market through constant reforms andinnovation. So China has maintained stability and continuity of major state policies so as to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of their implementation. The point that the report spends the most time on is how todepend reform, how to perfect social governance, how to discipline the CPC strictly. The purpose for that emphasis is that governance system should bein novated based on the new national conditions and social development, that the capacity of the Party and the government to serve the public needs to beimproved. Over the past decades, China has developed faster and better than other developing nations, but the major reason does not lie in the difference between CPC and others political parties. Instead, it is more about the fact that China enjoys a more complete state system and the higher level of governance.



In anutshell, China’s development over the past 30 years has actually been a courseof a developing country’s pursuit of moder nization. Though China’s develop mentmodel is not fixed yet, China’s success does offer one more path for developing countries to learn from in their pursuit of modernization and a new choice for countries and people that wish for a rapid growth but not at the expense of national independence. China’s development road is not perfect, but it does have accumulated rich experiences and lessons, many of that can be shared with othercountries, in particular developing countries. We may put it this way, China,by providing a new development road, contributed Chinese wisdom and solution tohelp solve the challenges of human being.

 

Sharingthe Opportunities in Chinese Growth

China has become a major power with global impact. For such a country, what it cares goes beyond national rejuvenation as it also pays close attention to theen hancement of the common welfare of mankind. During the course of pursuing Chinese national revival, it has become part of the mission of the Chinese diplomacy on how to share the China opportunity with the rest of the world and how to contribute to the world development and global governance. The work report delivered at the 19th Party Congress calls for countries around the world to build a community of shared future for mankind, with a lasting peace, universal security, commonpro sperity, and a world which is open and inclusive, clean and beautiful. The proposal of a community of shared future reveals the moral principles of Chinese diplomacy.

The Belt and Road Initiative and its smooth implementation actually represent the sincerity and determination of China to achieve win-win and common growth with the rest of the world. The 19th Party Congress report notes that China will continue to keep the country open to the outside world, and promotethe Belt and Road Initiative so as to create a new platform for international cooperation, generating renewed impetus for common development. BRI will linkfour giant markets, each with a population of over one billion: the one billion strong East Asian economic belt, Eurasian Land Bridge with a similar population, South Asian subcontinent market and African market with similar population size. From China’s point of view, BRI means to accelerate the paceof opening up to countries to the west of China while keeping open to the eastof China.  By so doing, China is making anew ground in pursuing opening up on all fronts in a more balanced,geographically wider and open manner. From the angle of the countries along the Belt and Road, the implementation of BRI spurs their economic growth, isconducive to establish common security through cooperation among nations. Bymanaging their differences and bringing their disputes under control, those countries will in turn enjoy a sound environment for economic growth. Long termpoint of view, BRI, by dint of “soft connectivity” in the field of cultural andpeople-to-people exchanges, will also enhance the exchanges among majorcivilizations in Asia, Europe and Africa, and the mutual understanding andtrust among nations and peoples in these regions. BRI, along with theever-improving cooperation mechanism, is a major public good provided by Chinato the world.

Some have asked if the Belt and Road idea is an “Initiative” or a “strategy”? In fact,they want to make sure whether, behind Belt and Road Initiative, there’s ageopolitical intention?  BRI was put forward and advocated by China, and naturally there’s a China imprint andeffort to actively promote such an initiative. But at the same time, we should realize that BRI follows a principle of joint consultation, joint constructionand sharing. It’s implemented under the spirit of openness, inclusiveness,coordination and win-win. It opens to all countries and regions, and China welcomes efforts from nations to align their own development plans with BRI. BRIis not a geopolitical tool, nor is its purpose of establishing an exclusive cluefor interests groups. On the contrary, it intends to establish a new platform for countries to have mutual beneficial cooperation and promote a brand newglobal partnership of development. BRI may originate from China but it belongsto the world.

The19th party Congress report stresses that China will deepen relations with itsneighbors in accordance with the principle of amity, sincerity, mutual benefitand inclusiveness. It says China will, guided by the principle of upholding justice while pursuing shared interests, conducts its relationship with African countries with sincerity, honesty, affinity, and good faith. The principle of“upholding justice while pursuing shared interests” requires us to take into considerationboth justice and interests in handling relations with developing countries.With that in mind, China provided 60 billion US dollars to support the ten major Cooperation Plans between China and Africa, 35 billion dollars to support the industrialization and infrastructural construction in the Middle East. Duringthe Ebola outbreak in West Africa, China dispatched 1,200 medical professionalsto the epidemic region while supplying in four rounds aids worth some 120million dollars. Acts like these reveal China’s growing awareness of international responsibility. The principle of “upholding justice whilepursuing shared interests” means China’s own development is connected to that of a great number of developing countries, the interests of the Chinese people are intertwined with the over allinterests of the people from developing countries. Such a concept on just iceand interests serves the purpose of creating a new guideline for China to jointhe South-South cooperation in the new era and promoting the relationship between China and other developing countries to a new level. It reflects the benevolence and selflessness on the Chinese side in its endeavor to assistother developing nations, safe guard world peace and development, and build acommunity of shared future for mankind.

The long vision of China’s diplomacy can also be seen in the country’s active participation in the reform of global governance system. China has made prominent contribution in world economic growth, international peace and security,as well as the fight against climate change by offering more and more Chinese wisdomand solutions. It also takes an active part in reforming and improving major international mechanism and launched a series of international organizationsand cooperative mechanism featuring joint consultation, joint construction andsharing. As a result, China’s international status is streng thened during the process. The goal of China’s participation in global governance is to promote aworld, in which global challenges can be dealt with effectively. At the same time China is joining the international community to establish mechanism, rulesand orientation for international system. With more Chinese voices and Chinese elementsin the making of global rules, China aims to promote a more just and fairinternational order as well as international system. Previously a learner and participant in international system, China has increasingly become a shaper,builder and even a leader in developing and refining the international system,with growing influence and ability to impact the world.

With national rejuvenation, what can China contribute to the world? If we say China’s remarkable poverty alleviation and rapid economic growth with 1.3 billion people has been itself a great contribution to the global development,then China’s active promotion of common development and a lasting peace of theworld, while pursuing its own development, would constitute another major contribution. What China needs to do is to continue with the implementation of BRI and participation in global governance. China needs to press ahead with principles of win-win and “upholding justice while pursuing shared interests.” China needs to transform itself from focusing ondomestic development to a leadership role on global scale, from focusing onnational affairs to a wider range of global affairs, so as to shape a global thinking, global identity and an image of a major power for China. China’s development benefits itself and but is also shared with the rest of the world.