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卡杜·塞博亚:发展与自然保护可并行不悖


不以牺牲野生动植物和土地为代价,而是因之而发展


文I卡杜·塞博亚(Kaddu Kiwe Sebunya)非洲野生动物基金会主席    翻译I许钦铎


中国成功的外交政策

中国正式提出人类命运共同体倡议

构建人类命运共同体实践

造福人类社会需要各国同心协力


在近20年的时间里,全球都在讨论非洲的变化。这个话题被重复了无数遍,它几乎变得神秘起来了。但是,一个响亮而又默默的主角却被除外:非洲人民。在这个令人最为兴奋的革命背后的男人和女人们,他们没有被充分肯定,或者说认知不够。

我们的爱国人士和全球公民们,通过他们的努力、奉献和关爱,这顿晚餐才变为现实。我们上次会面时——遇见你们其中的一些人是去年——那是一个宛如今天的日子,想起来如同一个遥远的梦。说它遥远是因为,我们设置了宏大的目标,将为非洲和野生动物们带来巨大变化。我们在等待中国全面禁止象牙贸易,也同时在和北京动物园商谈建立伙伴关系。根据中非合作论坛支持非洲保护野生动物计划,中国将要从2017年12月31日开始禁止象牙贸易。我对此充满信心。这一重大决定让我兴奋不已,夜不能寐。一个自然保护的新秩序正在形成,而中国担当了领导作用。她和非洲肩并肩来应对这个折磨非洲大陆的最为深重的危机之一。成功解决这些问题之后的非洲大陆是什么样子的呢?非洲还需要中国在哪个议题上发挥领导作用?我也许无法提供答案,但是我知道,中国禁止象牙贸易的决定将带来根本性转变,这是大象的生命线。

中国,感谢你采取这么重要的一步来拯救这个全球关注的偶像级动物。

1月22日,非洲野生动物基金会和北京动物园签署了一个备忘录。这是个空前的决定。这不仅仅是因为我们是在中国决定禁止象牙贸易之际建立了伙伴关系。还因为,这是第一次一个自然保护机构和世界上最大的动物园(根据日游客量计算)建立了伙伴关系。对于非洲而言,这个是个重大新闻。对于野生动植物和土地来说,是个重大新闻。对于这个世界而言,也是个重大新闻,因为,我们非洲人仅仅是这个世界要培育、享有并保护的珍惜资源的守护人。

通过这个伙伴关系,我们将和北京动物园分享非洲物种及其栖息地保护、濒危物种保护、反偷猎和反走私、自然保护方面的融资和相关事业发展方面的最佳实践。

非洲野生动物基金会是保护野生动植物和土地的主要倡导者,是现代化繁荣非洲的重要组成部分。

我们正在与一些最为重要的非洲机构合作,其中包括非盟以及一些区域组织,譬如东南非共同市场、东非共同体、南部非洲发展共同体和中部非洲经济共同体,来领导非洲大陆的变革,包括自然资源保护。

非洲野生动物基金会认识到,各国政府在加强以野生动植物和土地为中心的现代繁荣非洲之愿景方面的作用。这个愿景也符合非盟《2063年议程》——即我们所想要的非洲,以及《联合国可持续发展目标》的规定。当各国政府视愿景为己任,公民倡导自然保护时,我们的努力就会越来越成功。

我们提倡要对生态系统在非洲大陆发展中的作用有更多了解,我们寻求建立伙伴关系,结合非洲自然资源管理上的优先工作事项,阐释并积极制定相关政策,对非洲面临的独特挑战进行快速的反应,让非洲和非洲人在非洲大陆自然保护叙事上拥有更大的声音。

换言之,我们就是非洲的自然保护组织。我们是非洲创造繁荣未来的伙伴——不以牺牲野生动植物和土地为代价,而是因之而发展。

中国在20年的时间里成功成为非洲最重要的经济伙伴。无论是贸易、投资、基础设施融资还是援助,没有哪个国家在非洲拥有如此广泛和深刻的参与度。在过去的十年中,海外直接投资在非洲也有更快增长,增速高达惊人的40%。中国也是一个快速增长的庞大援助者,同时也是非洲建设资金的最大来源。这为非洲近年来许多最为雄心勃勃的基础设施建设提供了支持。

在2000年,中非贸易额仅为100亿美元。2015年,这个数字已经增长为3000亿美元。咨询公司麦肯锡最近发布了一份报告,说多达10000家中国公司在非洲经营,其中90%为私有企业。

中国企业在非洲经济中涉足诸多领域。其中,近1/3为制造业,1/4为服务业,约1/5为贸易,另有约1/5在建筑和房地产行业。在制造业领域,麦肯锡估计,非洲每年工业总产值5000亿中的12%由中国公司创造。在基础设施领域,中国公司的主导地位更为突出,他们赢得非洲建筑市场上接近50%的国际合同。非洲人民对此表示欢迎。非洲民调组织“非洲晴雨表”对36个非洲国家做过一项调查,结果显示,63%的调查对象认为中国为他们的国家带来了积极变化。其中,24%的受访者视中国为最佳经济发展模式——仅次于美国(30%)。


⬆在水坑边喝水的两只小猎豹


这些投资正在给非洲带来巨大改变。有鉴于此,我们与中国伙伴需要一个具有前瞻性的合作方案,以确保在经济和生态充满活力的非洲,自然资源得以保护。这也是我为什么对即将在今年9月召开的中非合作论坛感到兴奋。我视之为采纳并扩大中国生态文明蓝图的机遇。按照这个计划,不但强劲的经济增长和良好基础设施建设会得到支持,同时环境也会得以保护。

幸运的是,我环顾四周,内心坚定,我们应对这项任务绰绰有余。

通过积极政策、社区参与和开放的治理,各国政府向我们表明,发展和自然保护可以并行不悖。这个双赢的方式说明,在今天的非洲,自然保护所要面对的潜在挑战并非无法避免。

总而言之,技术进步和可持续发展,可以让非洲在野生动植物和土地保护上避免“零和游戏”式的选择。

非洲的未来在于生态文明。(本文根据作者在2018年1月23日北京举行的非洲野生动物基金会晚宴上所作演讲整理,经作者审阅后发表。编辑:杨海霞)



The Future of Africa Lies with ECO-Civilization


By Mr. Kaddu Kiwe Sebunya, the President of African Wildlife Foundation (AWF)



It is with great pride that I stand here today to speak to you, Distinguished Ladies and Gentlemen. For close to two decades now the global chorus has been about Africa changing. The story has been told so many times that it is becoming almost mythical, except for one loud silence: the people. The men and women behind this most exciting revolution have not been celebrated enough, if not at all.

Tonight, I am honored to dine with YOU—the patriots and global citizens who through hard work, sacrifice and compassion have made this possible. Ladies and gentlemen arise and let’s toast to your good health and success of our countries. Thank you for engineering Africa’s most prosperous decade.

When we last met, some of you last year, a day like today was a distant dream. Distant because we had set ambitious targets with monumental consequences for Africa and wildlife. We were waiting on China to ban trade in ivory and also negotiating a partnership with the Beijing Zoo. While I had no doubt that China would execute the ban on December 31, 2017 in line with the FOCAC plan to support Africa in its efforts to protect wildlife resources, the import of the decision kept me awake with excitement. A new order was emerging in conservation, and China was providing leadership, walking side-by-side with Africa to solve one of the most endemic crises bedeviling the continent. What would success look like? What should Africa ask China to provide leadership on next? I may not have answers, but I know China’s decision to ban ivory trade was a game-changer; a lifeline for our elephants.

Thank you China for taking a big step to save this global icon!

Yesterday the African Wildlife Foundation signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Beijing Zoo. This is unprecedented – and not just because the partnership is coming on the backdrop of China’s decision to ban trade in ivory. It was the first time a conservation organization is partnering with the world’s largest zoo (in terms of daily visitors). This is great news for Africa. Great news for wildlife and wildlands. And great news for the world because we, Africans, are only but custodians of these priceless resources for the world to nurture, enjoy and protect.

Through this partnership, we will share best practices with Beijing Zoo regarding African species and habitat conservation, endangered species, anti-poaching and trafficking, conservation finance and enterprise development.

Ladies and gentlemen, let me tell you a little more about our organization – the African Wildlife Foundation. We are the primary advocates for the protection of wildlife and wild lands as an essential part of a modern and prosperous Africa.

We are working with the most important African institutions – the African Union and regional blocs such as Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, East African Community, Southern Africa Development Community and Economic Community of Central African States – to lead the transformation of the continent, including protecting its natural resources.

AWF recognizes the role of governments in the enhancement of our vision of a modern thriving Africa with wildlife and wildlands at its core in line with the AU Agenda 2063 – the Africa we want and the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Increasingly, we see success when governments take charge of the vision and the citizens the narrative of conservation.

We advocate for a greater understanding of the role of ecosystems in our continent’s development, and seek to forge partnerships to integrate and articulate priorities in the management of Africa’s natural capital, develop proactive policies that respond promptly to Africa’s unique challenges, and to give Africa and Africans a greater voice in the conservation narrative on the continent.  

In other words, we are Africa’s conservation organization. A partner to Africa in creating a prosperous future—not at the expense of wildlife and wild lands, but because of them.

In two decades, China has become Africa’s most important economic partner. Across trade, investment, infrastructure financing, and aid, no other country has such depth and breadth of engagement in Africa. Foreign direct investment has grown even faster over the past decade, with a breakneck annual growth rate of 40 percent. China is also a large and fast-growing source of aid and the largest source of construction financing; these contributions have supported many of Africa’s most ambitious infrastructure developments in recent years.

In 2000, China-Africa trade was a mere $10bn. By 2015, that had risen to $300bn. Additionally, in a recent report McKinsey, a consulting firm, suggests that there are as many as 10,000 Chinese companies operating in Africa, 90% of them privately owned.



Chinese firms operate across many sectors of the African economy. Nearly a third are involved in manufacturing, a quarter in services, and around a fifth each in trade and in construction and real estate. In manufacturing, McKinsey estimate that 12 percent of Africa’s industrial production—valued at some $500 billion a year in total—is already handled by Chinese firms. In infrastructure, Chinese firms’ dominance is even more pronounced, and they claim nearly 50 percent of Africa’s internationally contracted construction market. And African masses are loving it. A survey of 36 African countries by Afrobarometer found that 63% of respondents said China had a positive impact on their countries. And 24% of respondents considered China the best model for economic development – second only to the US (30%).

These investments are transforming Africa tremendously.  Because of this, we need forward thinking solutions in partnership with China to ensure an economically and ecologically vibrant Africa, with protected natural resources. That is why I am excited about the next FOCAC conference in September. I see this as an opportunity to adopt and scale up China’s blueprint of eco-civilization that supports robust economy and good development of infrastructure, while simultaneously protecting the environment.

Fortunately, when I look around I am reassured that we are more than equal to the task.

Through proactive policies, community involvement and open governance, our governments are demonstrating that development and conservation are not mutually exclusive. Such a win-win approach to conservation suggests that there is nothing inevitable about conservation challenges in Africa today.

In conclusion, ladies and gentlemen, the advances in technology and the promise of sustainable development suggest that Africa does not have to face zero-sum choices in managing wildlife and wildlands.

The future of Africa lies with eco-civilization. ( This article is arranged by the author’s speech on the AWF dinner meeting held in Beijing on January 23, 2018. )