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农业文化遗产对乡村振兴的意义

农业文化遗产对乡村振兴的意义

文 | 闵庆文 曹幸穗

编辑 | 杨海霞 


乡村振兴是全球面临的共同课题

城乡差距扩大、乡村衰落是当今中国快速发展中的现实境遇。

随着工业化和城镇化发展,城市膨胀同时出现了农村的衰落。农村劳动力从农业向非农产业转移和其中一部分人口向城镇流动,这一过程的直接显现就是农村资源或要素的“过度”流出,弱化了农业与农村发展所必要的人力、物力、财力和聚集力,主要表现为农村居住人口过度减少而导致所谓“空心化”现象,同时伴以居住人口和农业从业人口“老龄化”现象,以及农村产业发展缓慢、传统乡村文化消失、农村生态环境恶化和乡村人才流失等。

其实不仅在中国,世界各地也面临着共同的问题。据研究,大多数国家都在不断推进城市扩张,以促进经济发展和提高国民生活水平,但与之相应的则是乡村发展活力的不断降低。无论是发达国家还是发展中国家,概莫如此。从某种意义上说,乡村衰落是全球面临的共同挑战,乡村振兴是全球面临的共同课题。

以我们的近邻日本为例。20世纪60年代,随着日本经济的快速增长,农村劳动力不断向城市流动,许多农村出现了衰落,主要表现为农村劳动力高龄化与兼业化现象严重、村落数量不断减少、农村经济几近停滞、农业后继者匮乏,土地抛荒、半抛荒现象较为普遍,城乡差距进一步扩大。

正是为了解决这些难题,日本开展了农村振兴运动,并在70年代末又发起了造村运动,旨在以振兴产业为手段,促进地方经济发展,振兴逐渐衰落的农村。

2017年10月18日,习近平总书记在党的十九大报告中提出乡村振兴战略。2017年12月29日,中央农村工作会议进一步提出走中国特色社会主义乡村振兴道路,并按照党的十九大提出的决胜全面建成小康社会、分两个阶段实现第二个百年奋斗目标的战略安排,明确了实施乡村振兴战略的目标任务与时间表。

2018年3月8日,习近平总书记在十三届人大一次会议期间参加山东代表团审议时,强调实施乡村振兴战略“是党的十九大作出的重大决策部署”,“是一篇大文章”,“要统筹谋划、科学推进”。提出“五个振兴”的科学论断,对实施乡村振兴战略目标和路径给出明确指示,即乡村产业振兴、乡村人才振兴、乡村文化振兴、乡村生态振兴、乡村组织振兴。

农业文化遗产富含乡村振兴的多种资源

中国5000年以上的游牧和农耕历史中衍生出灿烂的农业文明,这些珍贵的农业文化遗产,至今依然发挥着重要的作用。不仅在中国,在世界上其他地方,也存在着各种各样的农业文化遗产,对当地的百姓生计、社会进步和文化传承起到了重要的作用。

2002年联合国粮农组织发起了“全球重要农业文化遗产”倡议,中国成为这项事业的最早响应者、成功实践者、重要推动者和主要贡献者.

这里所说的“农业文化遗产”,是以活态性、系统性、多功能性为主要特征的新的遗产类型,是劳动人民在与所处环境长期协同发展中世代传承并具有丰富的农业生物多样性、完善的传统知识与技术体系、独特的生态与文化景观的农业生产系统。

农业文化遗产蕴含的丰富的生物、技术、文化“基因”,对于乡村振兴战略实施具有重要的现实意义。

品种单一化是一个全球性问题,并产生了一系列负面影响:容易发生大范围的突发性病虫害或其他生物灾害;不能满足不同消费需求的差异化供应,出现“万国一色,千种一味”的市场格局;难以满足人们对农产品功能特色越来越高的要求。通过发掘农业文化遗产,将有助于坚持农业育种的多元化方向、克服过度追求产量导向的单一化育种倾向;有助于坚持良种选育的优质化、特色化、地方化目标,重视传统优质品种的提纯复壮和推广利用,形成具有显著地方特色的农业生产和农产品质量的优势;有助于进一步发掘并利用好地理标志品种资源和农业良种资源。 

以化肥农药施用为主要特征的现代农业,造成土壤劣化、环境污染、肥力下降的弊端,也促进了当前世界范围内发展生态循环农业的热潮。传统农业可以称为无污染农业,零排放农业,因为它的生产过程和产后加工利用,都没有向环境排放废弃物,做到了综合利用、循环利用、绿色利用。我国传统农业中的桑基鱼塘、稻鱼共生、农林复合、农牧结合等等,都是生态循环农业的成功范例。

可持续的农业绿色发展已在国际范围内取得广泛共识。在农业结构调整的“提质增绿”方面,可以借鉴我国农业文化遗产的优良传统:我国历史上选育了大批作物优良品种,在当前的“稳量提质”结构调整中可以发挥重要作用;在栽培技术取向上,坚持绿色环保的技术措施,恢复“绿肥养田,厩肥养稼”的农业技术,可以使田园增绿,品种增优;采用传统农业的生物防治技术,发展中医农业,可以有效避免化学合成肥料和生物激素对农产品品质的影响;倡导循环农业和生态农业的种植方式,减少环境污染,确保农业产品的优质安全,可以促进绿色农业、绿色产品、绿色乡村的绿色发展目标的实现。 

作为农业文化遗产系统重要组成部分的乡村民俗文化,也是中华优秀传统文化的重要组成部分,对于农耕文化传承、农村社会和谐,同样具有重要意义。

农耕文化是中国五千年文明发展的物质基础和文化基础,是中华优秀传统文化的重要组成部分,是构建中华民族精神家园、凝聚炎黄子孙团结奋进的重要文化源泉。历经千百年而不衰的农业文化遗产,是中华文化的重要组成部分,是“人与自然和谐相处”的典范。

农业文化遗产地将成为乡村振兴示范区

自2005年浙江青田稻鱼共生系统被联合国粮农组织认定为全球重要农业文化遗产以来,经过10多年的发展,在农业部的统一领导下,在中国科学院等单位的支持下,中国不仅以15项全球重要农业文化遗产的数量位居各国之首,而且在探索遗产保护、经济发展进行了有益探索,取得了显著成效。

从农业部发布的4批91项、涉及104个县区市的中国重要农业文化遗产可以明显看出这些地方的一些显著特点。

一是基础设施薄弱、经济发展落后。在104个县区市中,有40多个属于国家重点贫困县,是实施精准脱贫的重点地区。即使像浙江青田这样的东部地方,也因“九山半水半分田”的自然条件,农村基础设施建设和农业经济相对滞后。

二是生态系统脆弱、生物资源丰富。所认定的农业文化遗产地中,绝大多数位于高原、山区、洼地、旱地、水源保护地等,生态系统脆弱但服务功能重要,属于重要生态功能区。同时,这些地方不仅保留了青田田鱼、梯田紫米、从江香禾、兴化龙香芋等独特的地方农业物种资源,也是生物多样性富集的地区。

三是传统知识丰厚、技术体系完善。由于受到现代技术的影响相对较小,许多农业文化遗产地依然保留着农业生产、资源管理的传统知识与技术。不仅有桑基鱼塘、稻田养鱼、农林复合这些典型的生态农业模式,也有木刻分水、坎儿井这样的资源保护与利用技术。

四是文化资源富集、乡村景观优美。“农耕文化是中华文化的根”在农业文化遗产地表现尤为显著,那里不仅有青田鱼灯舞、从江侗族大歌、哈尼四季生产调等一大批国家甚至世界非物质文化遗产,也有田鱼干炒粉干、九层糕等地域特色明显的饮食文化,还有森林-村落-梯田-水系组成的完美稻作梯田系统以及垛田、古香榧群、古桑树群、古枣园等乡村景观。

五是人口数量较多、人才资源短缺。人多地少、人才缺乏、劳动力资源富集是农业文化遗产地的一大特色,提高有序推进城镇化、实施劳动力转移、提高劳动力素质是乡村发展的重要课题。

农业文化遗产地应当针对上述特点,充分利用资源优势与“后发”优势,实现“五个振兴”。

产业振兴方面应当围绕农村一二三产业融合发展,充分发掘遗产地的生物、生态、文化与景观资源优势,构建乡村产业体系,因地制宜、突出特点、发挥优势,形成既有市场竞争力又能持续发展的产业体系。敖汉旗紧紧抓住“全球环境500佳”“全球重要农业文化遗产”两个金字招牌,做大做强小米产业,就是一个成功案例。

人才振兴方面应当在重视引进外来优秀人才的同时,更加重视本土人才的培养与利用,注重吸引知识青年回归故土,注重劳动者能力的提高。青田县归国华侨金岳品、敖汉旗返乡创业的刘海庆、红河县带领村民致富的郭武六都是这方面的突出代表。

文化振兴方面,应当本着扬弃的态度,发掘传统文化中的优秀成分,弘扬主旋律和社会正气,培育文明乡风、良好家风、淳朴民风,使乡村社会更加互助发展,乡邻和睦,乡风文明。同时,利用丰厚的文化资源促进多功能农业与文化创意产业的发展,实现经济与文化的同步发展。

生态振兴方面,科学合理利用自然资源,有效保护生态环境与生态系统功能,治理美化乡村生活环境。让良好生态环境成为乡村振兴的支撑点,贯彻“绿水青山就是金山银山”的发展理念,将生态系统保护、资源持续利用贯穿于农业绿色发展之中。真正使乡村成为山清水秀、生态宜居的美丽乡村。

组织振兴方面,在建立健全基层党组织的同时,充分发挥传统社会治理的积极因素,坚持法治、德治、村民自治相结合的治理结构,利用行之有效的乡规民约,构建新型乡村社会治理体制。

在农业文化遗产地,通过乡村振兴战略的实施,实现乡村经济发展、乡土文化传承、乡村社会和谐、乡村生态健康有着特别的意义,而且通过探索出一条经济发展、生态保育与文化传承的农业文化遗产保护之路,可以为世界农业与农村可持续发展贡献出中国方案。

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英文版:

Rural Revitalization: A Global Issue

It is well known that the widening gap between urban and rural areas and the decline of rural areas are the realities together with China's rapid development.

With the development of industrialization and urbanization, the urban expansion and rural decline perform at the same time. The trend is that rural labor forces are transferring from agricultural to non-agricultural industries and some of farmers move to towns from countryside. The direct manifestation of this process is the "excessive" outflow of rural resources and/or elements which weaken the necessary human, material, financial, and gathering forces for agricultural and rural development. The typical evidences are the “hollow phenomenon“ in rural areas and the“aging trend”of agricultural forces. Besides, there are also other important issues existing in the rural areas liking the slow development of rural industries, the diminishing of traditional rural culture, the deterioration of rural eco-environment, and the loss of talents.

In fact, not only in China, the world also faces the challenges. According to scientific reports, most countries are constantly promoting urban expansion to stimulate economic development and improve the living standards of the people, which are corresponding to the constant decline in the vitality of rural development. This is true in both developed and developing countries. In a sense, rural decline is a common challenge facing the world, and rural revitalization is a common task facing the world.

Japan may be a good example. In the 1960s, with the rapid growth of Japanese economy, rural labors constantly flowed to cities and many rural areas declined, which mainly embodies as the aging and part-time employment of rural labors, the decreasing number of villages, the almost stagnation of rural economy, the shortage of agricultural successors, and the widely spreading farmlands abandonment. The gap between urban and rural areas has been widened.

In order to solve these problems, Japan launched the rural revitalization campaign in 1960s and started a so-called new village movement in the late 1970s. All these efforts aimed at revitalizing industries as a measure to promote local economic development and to revitalize the declining rural areas.

In October 18th, 2017, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, put forward “Rural Revitalization Strategy” during his report at the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. On December 29th, 2017, the Central Conference on Rural Work further proposed to take the road of socialist countryside revitalization with Chinese characteristics and clarify the objectives, tasks and timetables for the implementation of the Rural Revitalization Strategy.

On March 8th, 2018, General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized that the implementation of the Rural Revitalization Strategy "a great decision deployment made by the 19th National Congress of the CPC", "a big article" and "a comprehensive plan and scientific advancement are necessary" during the First Session of the 13th National People’s Congress. He further summarized "FIVE Revitalizations” which include rural industrial revitalization, rural talent revitalization, rural cultural revitalization, rural ecological revitalization, and rural organizational revitalization.

Agricultural Heritage Systems: “Gene Bank” for Rural Revitalization

Over 5,000 years of nomadic and farming history, Chinese ancestors have created brilliant agricultural civilization which still play an important role in current agricultural and rural development and in the future. These precious Agricultural Heritage Systems, existing in China and also in other places of the world, have crucial meaning for the social progress, cultural inheritance, and livelihood support to local people.

In 2002, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) launched an initiative of "Global Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS)". China is the earliest responder, successful practitioner, key promoter and main contributor.

"Agricultural Heritage Systems", a new type of heritage with some characteristics of dynamic, systemic, and multi-functional, are a living, evolving system of human communities in an intricate relationship with their territory, cultural or agricultural landscape or biophysical and wider social environment.

In Agricultural Heritage Systems, there are abundant biologic, technological, and cultural "genes" which has vital practical significance for the implementation of Rural Revitalization Strategy.

For example, simplification of crop varieties is a global problem and produces a series of negative impacts: easy to break out a wide range of sudden pests and diseases or other biological disasters, hard to meet the diverse needs from different consumers and hard to meet people's increasing demand for the functional characteristics of agricultural products. Conservation and development of Agricultural Heritage Systems help to adhere to the diversified direction of agricultural breeding, to overcome the breeding tendency of excessive pursuit of yield-oriented, to keep the standard of high-quality, characteristic and localization during breeding, to form the advantage of remarkable local characteristics on agriculture and products’quality, and to take full use of the varieties resources of high-quality or geographical indication certification.

So-called modern agricultural development models, characterized by over-use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, have caused soil degradation, environmental pollution and fertility decline, and thus promoted the worldwide development of eco-agricultural practices. Agricultural Heritage Systems could be called as“zero-pollution agriculture”or“zero-emission agriculture”since no waste could discharge into the environment during its process of both production and utilization, achieving a comprehensive, cyclic, and green utilization of waste. In China, there are many successful examples of eco-agriculture such as Mulberry-dyke & Fish-pond System, Rice-Fish Culture System, Agroforestry and Agro-animal Husbandry System.

The sustainable agricultural development has been widely recognized in the world. In order to adjust the agricultural structure to be “quality improving & greener”, we could draw lessons from the fine tradition of China’s Agricultural Heritage Systems. A large number of excellent varieties of crops have been bred in the history of China which has significant meaning in the current “quantity keeping & quality improving” structural adjustment. When the adjustment comes to the cultivation techniques, we should stick to the traditional green techniques, using green manure to fertilize the field, using stable manure to fertilize the crop, which helps to decrease the waste from field and improve the quality of crop. Also, we adopt biological control technology to develop traditional Chinese medicine agriculture, which could effectively avoid the impact of chemical synthetic fertilizers and biological hormones on the quality of agricultural products. We should advocate for the planting way of traditional eco-agriculture, aiming to reduce environmental pollution and to ensure the quality and safety of agricultural products, thus to realize the green development goals, containing agriculture, products and rural area.

The folk culture, as an important part of both Agricultural Heritage Systems and Chinese excellent traditional culture, is of great significance to the inheritance of farming culture and the harmony of rural society.

The farming culture is the material and cultural basis for the development of China's 5000-year civilization. It is an important part of the excellent traditional Chinese culture. It is also a significant cultural source for building the spiritual home for Chinese nation and uniting the Chinese people and their descendants. Agricultural Heritage Systems, with thousands of years’ existence, is an essential part of Chinese culture and a model of harmonious coexistence between human and nature.

Agricultural Heritage Systems Sites: Best Demonstration Region for Rural Revitalization Strategy

Since the Qingtian Rice-Fish Culture System in Zhejiang Province was designated as GIAHS site by FAO in 2005, China’s Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have made great efforts and obtained remarkable achievements in conservation and development of agricultural heritage systems. At present, China not only ranks first in the world with the number of 15 GIAHS sites, MARA has released four batches of China-NIAHS sites, containing 91 sites covering 104 counties or districts. Some remarkable characteristics of these areas can be clearly summarized.

Firstly, these areas generally have weak infrastructure and backward economic development. Among the 104 counties or districts, more than 40 belong to “The National Key Poor Country”, where are the key areas for the implementation of Targeted Poverty Alleviation. Even in eastern areas such as Qingtian County, rural infrastructure construction and agricultural economy are lagging behind due to the bad conditions of "Nine Mountains-Half Water-Half Field" area distribution.

Secondly, these areas generally have fragile ecosystems and abundant biological resources. Most designated NIAHS sites are located in high plateau, mountainous area, depression, dry land, water source protection areas and so on, where the ecosystem are fragile whereas the ecosystem services are vital. At the same time, these areas not only retain the unique local agricultural species resources such as field fish in Qingtian, purple rice in Hani terraces, Xianghe glutinous rice in Congjiang, Longxiang taro in Xinghua, all these are also have high biodiversity.

Thirdly, these areas generally have abundant traditional knowledge and comprehensive technical system. Relatively less impacted by modern technologies, many NIAHS sites still retain the traditional knowledge and technologies of agricultural production and resource management. There are not only typical eco-agricultural models like Mulberry-dyke & Fish-pond System, Rice-Fish Culture System, Agroforestry, but also resources protection and utilization technology like woodcut water splitting and Karez well.

Fourthly, these areas generally have abundant cultural resources and beautiful rural landscapes. The saying that "Agricultural culture is the root of Chinese culture" is particularly prominent in Agricultural Heritage Systems sites. There exist a large number of national and even world intangible cultural heritage in Agricultural Heritage Systems sites, such as Fish Lantern Dance in Qintian, Kam Grand Choirs in Congjiang, Seasonal Production Tune in Honghe. Apart from these, in Agricultural Heritage Systems sites, there are many distinct regional food cultures, such as dried Field Fish Fried Vermicelli in Qingtian, Nine-layer Rice Cake in Congyi and so on. Besides, fine scenery of rural landscapes in Agricultural Heritage sites is impressive, such as prefect rice terraces landscape composed of forest-village-terraces-river system, duotian landscape, ancient Chinese Torreya forest, ancient mulberry tree forest as well as ancient jujube garden.

Fifthly, these areas generally have large population whereas a shortage of talent resource. It is an obvious characteristic of Agricultural Heritage Systems sites that there are limited farmland, large population, few talent and abundant labor resources. To resolve the condition, we should focus on the promotion of urbanization, implement of labor transfer and improvement of labor force quality

Based on the above, in Agricultural Heritage Systems sites, making full use of the advantages of resources and "backwardness" to realize the "Five Revitalization" should be considered.

In the aspect of industrial revitalization, we should focus on the convergence of primary, secondary and tertiary industries in rural areas, fully exploring the advantages of biological, ecological, cultural and landscape resources of heritage sites, constructing the rural industrial system, adapting measures to local conditions, highlight characteristics and give play to advantages, and forming an industrial system with both market competitiveness and sustainable developing ability.  Aohan Banner, firmly grasping two gilded signboards of the "Global 500 Roll of Honor for Environment Achievement" and "GIAHS" to strengthen their millet industry, gives us a successful example.

In the aspect of talent revitalization, we should pay attention to the introduction of exotic talents, and pay more attention to the training and appointment of local talents at the same time. We should focus on attracting young intellectuals back to their homeland, attach importance to the improvement of the ability of workers. There are many typical talent represents such as Jin Yuepin (a returned overseas Chinese from Qingtian County), Liu Haiqing (a graduate returned to hometown in Aohan Banner and started his millet business) and Guo Wuliu (a villager led the other villagers to become rich in Honghe County).

In the aspect of cultural revitalization, we should explore the excellent elements of traditional culture, carry forward the social integrity, and cultivate civilized local ethos, nice family style and honest folk custom, so as to make rural society more mutually beneficial and have harmonious neighborhood and civilized rural style. At the same time, use cultural resources to promote the development of multi-functional agriculture and cultural and creative industries, aiming to achieve economic and cultural development at the same time.

In the aspect of ecological revitalization, we should make scientific and rational use of natural resources, effectively protect the ecological environment and ecosystem functions, and govern together with beautifying the rural living environment. Let the ideal ecological environment become the support of rural rejuvenation. Carry out the development concept of "blue water and green mountains are golden mountains and silver mountains", and run through the ecological system protection and sustainable utilization of resources in the green development of agriculture. Finally, we could make the rural area into beautiful countryside with nice scenery and livable environment.

In the aspect of organizational revitalization, we should give full play to the positive factors of traditional social governance when establishing and perfecting grass-roots Party organizations, adhere to the governance structure of combining rule of law, rule of virtue and villagers' autonomy, and construct a new type of rural society governance system by utilizing effective rural rules and regulations.

Generally speaking, Agricultural Heritage Systems sites could be the best Demonstration Region for Rural Revitalization Strategy. It is of special significance to realize the development of rural economy, the inheritance of local culture, the harmony of rural society and the ecological health of rural areas through the implementation of the Rural Revitalization Strategy. Moreover, we could contribute China’s wisdom and to the sustainable agriculture and countryside for the world through exploring a way of economic development, ecological conservation and cultural heritage in the Agricultural Heritage Systems sites.