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人类命运共同体的未来


一带一路倡议是一个在全球范围内促进开放发展的项目,任何地缘政治的思维和做法都没有认清它的真实意义


文|日瓦丁·约万诺维奇(Zivadin Jovanovic)贝尔格莱德世界平等论坛主席    翻译|王晓波



中国作为世界第二大经济体,已经成为建设新的多极世界秩序的主要驱动力和重要组成,这一新秩序的基础是主权平等、领土完整、自由选择内部治理机制和不干涉内政。中国自身的政治、经济和道德优势、它在应对重大问题和挑战方面所采取的和平与对话战略以及它所奉行的机会均等、共同繁荣的理念都使得它所倡导的政策令人信服,并且非常愿意与之成为合作伙伴,因此,渴望和平和美好生活的人民是中国内政和外交政策的基石。

中国的发展成就在世界上没有任何先例。中国的国内生产总值在过去五年中保持了平均7.2%的增幅,这在所有国家中是最高的。在确保本国现代化发展和继续改善人民生活的同时,中国也为协助和支持其他国家的发展投入了巨大的精力和资源,特别是对那些最不发达国家。在2008-2012年的世界经济危机期间,中国通过联合国机构、二十国集团以及各种金融和区域组织,积极主动采取措施,以负责任大国的形象帮助国际社会解决危机和恢复经济。在其他国家遇到经济或人道主义方面的困难时,中国从未袖手旁观,而总是释放出团结和开放的诚意,与其并肩携手,设法为其化解矛盾或问题。中国之所以这样做,是基于一个坚定的信念,那就是在这个星球上没有人或国家可以完全独立存在或只依靠自己,我们都同属一个人类。因此,保持和加强相互依存和开放的意识是很有必要的,特别是在全球化的当今时代。

由于坚决贯彻执行既改革又开放的政策,中国为世界经济增长的贡献超过了30%,比美国、欧元区和日本加在一起的贡献都大。更具特点的是,中国经济的发展对减贫和缩短地区间发展差距也起到了巨大的帮助作用,满足了人民对美好生活的向往。这一经验在全球都具有可供借鉴的意义,因为它能有效防止在传统上被称为南北之间的社会经济差距的进一步加大。

2013年习近平主席提出了具有历史意义的一带一路倡议,作为一种多方位、涉及全球、注重平衡和有助于经济包容性、稳定增长的新模式,它已经在世界范围受到了欢迎和支持。迄今已经有一百多个国家和国际机构参与其中,而且这个数目还在增加。一带一路倡议在实际执行中已经在基础设施建设、产业、贸易、能源及其它领域取得了重大成就,这充分证明它是一个符合构建“人类命运共同体未来”的长远战略。它与中国其它类似的方针都体现在联合国的战略性文件中了,包括2017年在联合国第五十五次社会发展委员会(CSocD)上通过的决议中。与其它的一体化方案相比,一带一路倡议在强调全球领域、多方位和包容性以外,还将不同国家之间人民的友好交往放在了同等重要的位置上。

在2017年5月召开的一带一路倡议国际高峰论坛上,习近平主席在发言中精辟地总结了全球化的现状和创造和平美好生活的机遇:

“从历史维度看,人类社会正处在一个大发展大变革大调整的时代。世界多极化、经济全球化、社会信息化、文化多样化深入发展,和平发展的大势日益强劲,变革创新的步伐持续向前。各国之间的联系从来没有像今天这样紧密,世界人民对美好生活的向往从来没有像今天这样强烈,人类战胜困难的手段从来没有像今天这样丰富。”

习近平主席对现在和未来认知的思路如此清晰、积极,并且深知人民对美好生活的强烈渴望,因此,他在此基础上提出的战略构想自然得到国内和国际的一致肯定和赞同。他特别意识到贫富间的差距越来越大,并且表态一定要缩小这一差距。包括法国著名经济学家托马斯·皮克特在内的国际科学家团队的最新研究发现,世界上1%最富有的人获得的收入是近一半最贫困人口全部收入的两倍!这样的现象当然不能容忍。首先,这一现实和趋势是否符合人道主义、文化和当代文明的标准,确实令人怀疑。第二,由于这样的局面很可能会滋生各种极端主义和恐怖主义,并且导致社会动荡,因此国际社会有必要尽快探索出新途径和新举措来阻止形势变得更加恶化。毫无疑问,从人道主义援助的角度出发,采取综合措施和行动,对世界经济结构进行创新型治理是必由之路。这一战略中的一个方面不容忽视,那就是在国际金融机构和各国政府的支持下,坚持开放、包容和均衡发展的方针。一带一路倡议就是这一思路的现实体现。

倡导保护主义、孤立主义、单边主义和利己主义的人士既没有意识到经济全球化的进程和国与国之间互相依存的现实,也没有为自己的国家找到合适的发展道路。而且,需要指出的是,一带一路倡议是一个在全球范围内促进开放发展的项目,任何地缘政治的思维和做法都没有认清它的真实意义。

 

一带一路倡议的特点

●平等、开放、包容,而不是保护主义;

●互利互惠、合作共赢;

●互相尊重,不干涉别国内政;

●最领先的技术和生态标准;

●尊重各参与国的实际和优先考虑;

●政策协调,而不是单边主义;

●遵守各国及国际法律和规定;

●符合中国与欧盟关系、欧盟标准,欧盟成员国的义务;

●一带一路倡议的这些特点使它有别于其它形式的经济合作和一体化

按照一带一路倡议的思路不仅可以使参与国迅速获得收益,在经济活动中变得更加积极主动,并且得到很多帮助,而且也能激发它们未来进一步合作的潜能、协同效应和驱动力。这样的合作并不仅限于16个中东欧国家与中国之间,也包括中东欧国家之间以及一带一路沿线的所有国家。

在中国共产党的第十九次代表大会上,一带一路倡议的内容也被列入了党的章程,这足以证明它的重要性和中国共产党执行它的坚定性,对各参与国和其他打算参与的国家都传递出了鼓舞人心的信息。

中国单方面,或者与其他国家合作,成立了一些新的机构,它们在当前世界格局显现出多极化的时代能够对全球治理发挥重大作用:中国—联合国和平发展基金、中国应对气候变化南南合作基金、南南合作援助基金、丝绸之路基金和亚洲基础设施投资银行。中国是首批根据联合国可持续发展计划2030议程制定自身发展计划的国家之一。此外,中国还与其他金砖国家一起成立了新发展银行。所有这一切都表明中国作为一个负责任大国积极参与全球治理和兑现承诺的决心。

在一带一路倡议提出的四年时间中,许多跨境基础设施项目已经开工建设,它们在互联互通,特别是欧亚一体化方面,具有非常重要的战略意义。中国和亚洲许多一带一路沿线国家已经通过一些走廊、铁路线、海上航线和新的直达航线与欧洲实现了连接。货物列车定期从中国驶向德国、波兰、法国和其他西欧国家。通过陆地和海上交通,中国最大的港口借助希腊的比雷埃夫斯港与欧洲的中心连接了起来,然后再从那里乘火车途经马其顿共和国、塞尔维亚和匈牙利到达中、西欧地区。2014-2016年期间,中国与一带一路倡议的参与国之间的贸易总额超过了30000亿美元。在20个国家,中国公司建立了56个产业园和经济区,雇用了180多万当地的劳动力,创造的税收达到了11多亿美元。


⬆中国承建白俄罗斯维捷布斯克水电站枢纽区全景(新华社记者  白雪骐摄)


双引擎

中国与欧盟(EU)是全面战略伙伴关系,双方在欧盟——中国2020战略合作规划框架内就双边和国际事务展开了广泛的合作。他们合作的三个重要方面是:战略与政治、经济与贸易和人文交流。欧盟是中国最大的贸易伙伴;而中国也是欧盟的第二大贸易伙伴。2014年,欧盟从中国进口的货物总值是3020亿欧元;出口到中国的货物总值是1640亿欧元;同年的服务贸易额达到了500亿欧元。

2014年习近平主席在访问欧洲时表示,中国要与欧洲合作,将欧洲和亚洲市场整合在一起,同时使中国和欧洲成为促进全球经济增长的双引擎。欧盟委员会主席吉恩·克劳德·容克则认为,欧洲可以从中国提出的一带一路倡议中获益,因为它能够起到互相带动和互相影响的作用。

中国已经定义了在经济合作方面的三个优先发展领域:基础设施建设、高新技术和绿色科技,它们也都属于欧盟的发展战略。

从全球层面看,欧盟与中国也需要更紧密的合作,从而为诸如世界经济复苏缓慢、失业率不断上升、国际恐怖主义、全球变暖等问题找到合适的解决方案。

16+1的合作方式从一开始就与中国和欧盟作为全面战略伙伴的合作相吻合。它们之间的一致性确保了中国与欧盟和中国与中东欧的合作都是可持续发展的,而且其战略政策能够惠及所有的参与方。

一致性也是两种合作方式能够相互依赖、相互促进、相互协调的前提条件。欧盟成员国参与16+1合作框架也完全符合对成员国的规定。在十六个中东欧国家中,11个是欧盟成员,其他5个则是正式的或事实上的候选成员国(即阿尔巴尼亚、波黑、马其顿、黑山和塞尔维亚)。

中国与欧盟作为全面战略伙伴,签署了欧盟—中国2020战略合作议程和一些其它重要的协议。此外,中国还正在与欧盟磋商签署投资协议,这对双方来讲都非常重要。而对于中东欧国家来讲,那些已经是欧盟成员国的国家当然会关注和遵守欧盟的法律并履行成员国的义务;候选成员国虽然在法律上不受欧盟法律的约束,不过在一般情况下他们也都希望协商加入的过程能够顺利。而且,尽管他们暂时无需承担正式的义务,但遵守欧盟在经济、贸易、投资、食品安全、环境保护、可再生能源生产等方面的标准,无疑是符合他们的利益的。

很有必要指出的是,中国与中东欧国家签署的五个合作纲要(布加勒斯特,贝尔格莱德,苏州,里加,布达佩斯)的每一个都高度重视和尊重欧盟的法律以及欧盟成员国的规定和义务。事实上,16+1合作框架中所有成员国的目标都是一致的,即将一带一路倡议、16+1合作框架与欧盟的计划、议程和目标有效地协同融合在一起。在苏州纲要中,再次明确重申了开放和建设性的工作方法:

各参与国“接受并支持中国与欧盟领导人就建立中国——欧盟互连互通平台、发挥中国一带一路倡议与欧洲投资计划的协同作用以及确保16+1合作与中国和欧盟关系相得益彰所签署的重要协议。”

中国和中东欧国家都无意要求其内部保持绝对一致和排他性或者削弱欧盟的凝聚力。他们的目标只是加强互利合作、为基础设施和整体经济的现代化提供更多的资源和在一带一路沿线的经济带开辟新的市场,同时使成员国的发展更接近欧盟最先进成员国的发展水平。

2017年11月,中国与中东欧16个国家的峰会在布达佩斯召开,峰会的一个重点就是综合全面地阐述了与欧盟间明确且具有建设性的关系。布达佩斯行动纲领指出:

“与会各方认识到,“16+1合作”是中欧整体合作的重要组成部分,中方重申高度重视中欧全面战略伙伴关系,支持欧盟国家自主选择的一体化道路,乐见欧洲团结、稳定、繁荣,致力于推动中欧和平、增长、改革、文明四大伙伴关系发展。16国中的欧盟成员国和候选国承诺继续支持推进中欧全面战略伙伴关系和中欧合作2020战略规划,包括积极推动在中欧互联互通平台和欧洲投资计划框架下的务实合作,并支持中国同欧盟缔结高水平、全面的投资协定。”(编辑:杨海霞)


案例:塞尔维亚与一带一路

塞尔维亚是中国与中东欧16+1框架中一个相对来说比较小的发展中国家。在响应一带一路倡议后,中国的公司和银行迄今已经为其在产业、基础设施和能源的各个项目上投入了约60亿美元。其中最重要的是中国、塞尔维亚和匈牙利三国共同参与的从贝尔格莱德到布达佩斯的 350公里高速铁路项目,它已于2017年开工建设。中国公司参与连接贝尔格莱德与亚德里亚海南部(黑山)的11号走廊公路的现代化改造已经好几年了。中国在欧洲兴建的第一座跨越多瑙河的桥梁就位于贝尔格莱德;中国建的第一个钢厂位于距离贝尔格莱德40公里处的斯梅代雷沃;中国建的第一批内河港口在多瑙河和萨瓦河(位于斯梅代雷沃、科斯托拉茨和沙巴克)。塞尔维亚是欧洲国家中第一个对中国公民免签证的国家;中国银行贝尔格莱德分行负责周边十几个欧洲国家的业务。目前在中国赞助的项目中雇用的劳动力超过了15000人。一些新项目正在筹备中,其中包括两个经济区(产业园),均位于多瑙河畔(斯梅代雷沃和贝尔格莱德)、水质净化厂、发电厂(潘切沃)以及总计达300公里的公路。这意味着在未来一、两年里在这些一带一路项目中工作的雇员人数将翻一倍,从而使塞尔维亚许多家庭的生活得到改善。为了体现经济合作与民间交流同步发展,两国决定在对方国家开设自己的文化中心。位于贝尔格莱德的中国文化中心已经开工建设;塞尔维亚也在北京得到了用作其文化中心的场所。与此同时,两国高校、学校、剧院、美术馆、科研院所、电影制片人、体育机构和智库间的交流也在与日俱增,充分体现出塞尔维亚与中国作为全面战略伙伴的广泛合作。

一带一路倡议所取得的成绩证明它是实现和平、发展和互相理解的正确路径,是人类唯一可行的选择。希望它能成为所有国家和人民通向和平与繁荣之路。


Community of Shared Future of Mankaind


By Zivadin Jovanovic, Chairman Belgrade Forum for a World of Equals



China, the second strongest world economy, has become the key driver and central factor of building the new multi-polar world order based on the principles of sovereign equality, territorial integrity, freedom of choice of internal system and noninterference. China’s economic, political and moral strength, her strategy of peace and dialogue in solving major issues and challenges, her devotion to equal chances and prosperity for all made her policy trustworthy and the most desirable partner. Peoples yearnings to peace and better life is the corner stone of Chinas internal and foreign policy.

China’s development achievements are without any precedent in the world. GDP of China in the past 5 years grew by an average yearly rate of 7,2% which is the highest growth in the world. Securing modern overall development and better life for own people at the same time China has devoted enormous energy and resource in order to assist and support development of other countries, particularly the least developed ones. In the period of the world economic crises 2008 – 2012 China has undertaken important initiatives and responsibility to help the world community to resolve the crises and recover economy, be it through the system of UN, be it through G-20 or various financial and regional organizations.  China never was merely an observer of other countries’ economic or humanitarian hardships but rather the partner showing solidarity and openness for cooperation in alleviating difficulties. The background must be conviction that nobody in the planet is alone neither self-sufficient, that all of us belong to same humanity. Therefore there is need to maintain and reinforce the sense of interdependence and openness, especially now in the era of globalization.

Implementing policy of reforms and openness China at the same time contributed to the world economy growth by over 30%, more than US, Euro Zone and Japan together. What is also unique, China’s economic development has helped to substantially alleviate poverty and development gaps among regions and to satisfy people’s yearning for better life. This experience is also valuable on the global level in order to stop further aggravation of socio-economic gaps between what is conventionally known as North and South.

The historic Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) of the president Xi Djinping in  2013 has been welcomed and supported world-wide as the new model of multidimensional, global, more balanced, inclusive and stable economic growth. More than 100 countries and international organizations have been participating in its implementation so far and this number is further growing. Great achievements in the practical implementation of BRI in the field of infrastructure, industry, trade, energy and other fields have proved that the BRI is appropriate long term strategy to build “community of shared future for mankind”. This and other similar messages have been enshrined on the initiative of China in a number of UN strategic documents including in the resolution at the 55th UN Commission for Social Development (CSocD) in 2017. Apart from being global, multidimensional and inclusive, the BRI, compared to other forms of integration, encompasses people to people friendship as integral, equally important, part.

In his address to the International Summit Forum on the Belt and Road Initiative in May 2017 President Xi Jinping grasped reality of globalization and chances of peace and better life:

“In this increasingly multi-polar, economically globalized, digitalized and culturally diversified world, the trend toward peace and development has become stronger and reform and innovation are gaining momentum. Never have we seen such close interdependence between countries as today, and such a fervent desire of the people for a better life, and never have we had so many means to prevail over difficulties. ”

Having regard to such clear, positive approach to the present, future and peoples just yearnings for better life, it is only natural that the President Xi Jinping’s strategy gains unique and united understanding and support, equally, at home and worldwide. He is particularly conscious of the growing gap between rich and pore insisting that it should be narrowed. The recent research of the international scientists’ team, including renowned French economist Thomas Pickett, shows that 1% of the richest persons gain income twice as high as 50% of the poorest people, in the world! This, of course, is hardly bearable. First, it is questionable if such reality and trends could conform to humanitarian, cultural and contemporary civilization standards.  Second, because such situation may become fertile environment for spreading various extremisms, terrorism, social or other unrests. It is logic to conclude that there is need for the world community, i.e. to explore the ways and new initiatives how to stop further aggravation of socio-economic gap before it may become late. No doubt that complex of masseurs and actions are needed from humanitarian assistance to innovative governance in the world economy.  One direction of the strategy must not be neglected, that is – insisting on open, inclusive and balanced development with due support from the international financial institutions and individual governments. Something that has already been practice within the BRI.

Advocates of protectionism, isolationism, unilateralism and egoism neither recognize realities of globalized economic processes and inter-dependence among states and nations, nor they find the proper ways for development of own country. In addition, it should be understood that BRI is global, open development project and that any geopolitical approach or reasoning would miss the real sense.

Characteristics of BRI

● Equality, openness, inclusiveness instead of protectionism

● Mutual benefit, win win cooperation

● Mutual respect, noninterference

● The highest technological and ecology-friendly standards

● Respecting realities and priorities of participating countries

● Policy coordination instead of unilateralism

● Respect of national and international laws and regulations

● Compatibility with EU-China relations, EU standards and EU members’ obligations

Character and adherence to these principles make BRI cooperation different from the other forms of economic cooperation and integration.  Compliance with these principles has led to rapidly growing interests, initiatives and support of participating countries thus uncovering quite new potentials, synergies and drivers for future cooperation, not only between 16 CEE and China, but also between CEE countries themselves and between all the countries along the Belt and Road.

Incorporating the BRI initiative into the Constitution of the Communist Party of China at the 19th CPC Congress has been received as very important and significant decision confirming steadfastness of the BRI as the global, multidimensional and long term Project and sending the message of encouragement to participating countries as well as to other potential participants.    

China alone, or in cooperation with other partners, has established a number of new institutions of great importance for the global governance in the era of emerging multi-polar world order: China-UN Peace and Development Fund, China South-South Cooperation Fund on Climate Change, South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund, Silk Road Fund, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. China is among the first countries to adopt national plan for UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In addition, China in cooperation with other member countries of BRICS, has established New Development Bank. All this demonstrate China’s engagement with global governance and firm commitment to responsibilities as a major country.

In the past four years since BRI became reality many trans-border infrastructure projects have been constructed which have strategic importance in the field of physical connectivity and, particularly, for integration of Euro-Asia. China and many Asian countries along the Belt and Road have been connected with Europe by several corridors, railways, sea routes and new direct air lines. Cargo trains regularly function from China to Germany, Poland, France and other countries of the West Europe. Land and Sea Express Line is connecting the largest Chinese ports with the heart of Europe using Greek port of Piraeus and from there train via FYROM, Serbia, Hungary and again to the Central and Western Europe. Total trade between China and Belt and Road countries in 2014-2016 reached the sum of over 3 trillion US$. China’s investments in those countries exceeded 50 billion US$. In 20 countries Chinese companies established 56 industrial parks and economic zones employing over 180.000 workers and generating tax revenues of over 1.1 billion US$.

Twin Engines

China and European Union (EU) are comprehensive strategic partners cooperating on bilateral and international issues in the framework of joint EU-China 2020 strategic agenda for cooperation. Three pillars of their cooperation are: strategic-political; economy and trade; and, people to people exchange. EU is China’s the most important trade partner and China is the second EU’s most important trade partner. In 2014, EU imported €302 billion of goods from China and exported €164 billion of goods to China. Services exchange in the same year reached 50 billion Euros.
During his 2014 visit to Europe President Xi Jinping said that China would cooperate with Europe so as to integrate European and Asian markets and to make China and the EU the twin engines for global economic growth. According to the European Commission President Jean Claude Junker, Europe can benefit from the Chinese BRI as it can interact.

China has defined three potential priority areas for economic cooperation: infrastructure, high technologies, and green technologies which all make parts of EU strategy.  

On the global plan there is need for even more intensive EU-China cooperation in finding appropriate solutions to such issues as slow recovery of the world economy, growing unemployment, international terrorism, global warming and alike.

The 16+1 format of cooperation has from its inception been compatible with cooperation between China and Europe (EU) as comprehensive strategic partners. Compatibility is built in the very nature of 16+1 format of cooperation as guaranty that both China-EU and China-CEEC cooperation would progress as lasting, strategic policies of all involved partners.

Compatibility is also precondition that both ways of cooperation may radiate synergy relying and reinforcing each the other. It is compatible too with obligations of EU member countries participating in the 16+1 format of cooperation. Out of 16 CEE countries, 11 are EU members, while 5 are, formally or de facto, candidates for membership (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia).

In addition, China and EU are Comprehensive Strategic Partners having concluded EU- China 2020 Strategic Agenda for Cooperation and a number of other important agreements. Also, China is negotiating with EU investments agreement which is of high importance for both sides. As for CEE countries, those which are EU members understandably are bound to care and obey EU laws and membership obligations. Candidates for EU membership are not legally bound by EU laws but, in principle, they are interested in smooth course of negotiations process toward membership.

Also, regardless on any formal obligation, it is definitely in their interest to observe EU standards in economy, trade, investments, safety of food, environment protection, renewable energy production and alike.



It is important to note that each of the five Guidelines for Cooperation between China and CEE Countries (Bucharest, Belgrade, Suzhou, Riga, Budapest) paid the highest attention to commitments to respect EU laws, regulations and obligations of EU members.   In fact, all participants of 16+1 format cooperation aim at creating synergy between Belt and Road Initiative, 16+1 Format cooperation and EU plans, agendas and objectives. Open and constructive approach is clearly reaffirmed in the Suzhou Guidelines which reads:

The participants “welcomed and supported the important agreement between the Chinese and EU leaders on establishing the China-EU Connectivity Platform, as well as on developing synergies between the Belt and Road initiative of China and the Investment Plan for Europe, and between 16+1 cooperation and China-EU relations” .

Neither China nor CEE countries have intention to provoke internal concurrence or weaken EU cohesion. Their aim is to improve mutually beneficial cooperation, to provide additional resources for modernization of infrastructure and economy in general, to open new markets along BRI Economic Belt, and finally, to bring their countries’ development closer to the development level of the most advanced EU member countries .

The November 2017 China+16CEEC Summit in Budapest paid particular attention in comprehensively stating clear constructive position on relations toward EU. The Budapest Guidelines noted:

 “The Participants maintain that 16+1 cooperation constitutes an important part of the cooperation between China and Europe as a whole. The Chinese side reaffirms that it attaches great importance to China-EU comprehensive strategic partnership, that it supports the road of integration chosen by EU members in an independent manner, that it wishes to see a united, stable and prosperous Europe, and that it will promote China-EU partnership of peace, growth, reform and civilization. EU member states and candidate countries within the 16 CEECs are committed to the advancement of EU-China Comprehensive Strategic Partnership and EU-China Agenda 2020 , including actively promoting practical cooperation in the framework of the EU-China Connectivity Platform, in the Investment Plan for Europe and supporting the conclusion of an ambitious and comprehensive Agreement on Investment between the EU and China” .