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同心协力 共创未来


中国坚定地致力于促进世界和平、国际合作和包容均衡的发展,而且在改革和引领世界新秩序方面扮演着重要的角色


文I 梅拉库·穆鲁阿勒姆(Melaku Mulualem)埃塞俄比亚外交关系战略研究所培训部主任    翻译I 王晓波


中国成功的外交政策

中国正式提出人类命运共同体倡议

构建人类命运共同体实践

造福人类社会需要各国同心协力


中国成功的外交政策

目前在全球范围,中国的作用与日俱增,可是几十年前,中国的影响力远没有这么重要。虽然中国的边界只与十四个国家接壤,但实际上中国已经成为世界大多数国家的邻居,因为传统意义上以边界确定邻里关系的定义已经过时了。中国这种广泛的影响力并不是靠武力或舆论宣传实现的,而是凭借自身的经济实力以及对自己和整个世界长远的战略视野建立起来的。

中国的外交政策非常成功。中国的和平共处五项原则是上世纪五十年代初由周恩来总理提出的,至今仍是中国对外政策的基石。这五项原则是:“互相尊重主权和领土完整、互不侵略、互不干涉别国内政、平等互利和和平共处。”

中国与世界上其他国家建立双边和多边关系时都是基于上述原则。这些年中国在发展过程中又在这五项原则的基础上引入了一些新的理念,比如:共赢关系、反对霸权主义、维护世界和平、发展睦邻友好关系、建立友好合作关系、对外开放、反对恐怖主义等。

 

中国正式提出人类命运共同体倡议

2012年11月,中国共产党的第十八次代表大会首次提出了“人类未来命运共同体”这一观点。在过去四年中,习近平主席在许多国际会议上都反复强调了这一重要的全球理念。在中共召开的第十九次代表大会上,习近平总书记再次重申了中国坚持走和平发展道路,积极促进人类命运共同体建设的决心。

2013年,习近平主席还提出了一些不仅能使中国人民获益,而且惠及全人类的伟大思想。由习近平主席提出的一带一路倡议旨在通过覆盖全世界60多个国家,涉及约44亿人口的陆地和海上交通路线将亚洲与欧洲和非洲都连接起来。该倡议一改中国往日的被动姿态,表明中国要积极参与构筑世界新秩序的立场。习近平主席最近还说:

新时期的中国外交政策是推动新型国际关系和人类未来命运共同体的建设⋯⋯支持相互尊重、公平正义和合作共赢的原则;摒弃弱肉强食的丛林法则;提倡对话与合作,而不是对抗与结盟的做法⋯⋯共享未来的共同体将带来持久和平、普遍安全、共同繁荣、开放和包容,以及一个清洁美丽的世界。

他在发言中阐明了构建世界新秩序的必要性,因为它将使世界人民都能从中受益。曾有评论说,“由丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路组成的一带一路倡议充分体现了人类共享未来的哲学理念和愿景。”

中国已经投入巨大的人力和物力,开启广泛的项目建设,发达国家、发展中国家和最不发达国家都能从这些全球项目中获益。为了体现包容性,同时也为了让各国政府对这些项目有更清晰的认识,2017年5月,中国举办了一带一路峰会,峰会的内容充分表明该倡议所产生的益处将惠及全世界人民,而且它对全球化做出的贡献也是巨大的。

人类命运共同体是一个广义的概念,它可以与对国际社会的关切、世界和平与安全、全球可持续发展、消除贫穷和饥饿、普及识字率、全球共同资源的平等共享、公平与正义、良好的治理结构、法律与秩序、互相尊重、人类健康与尊严、包容性发展、和谐相处、性别平等、拥抱多样性、开放、合作及伙伴关系、不损害子孙后代的利益等结合起来考虑和理解。

2017年3月17日,联合国安理会通过第2344决议,将联合国援助团在阿富汗的期限又延长了一年。该决议使用了共赢的理念和构建“人类命运共同体”的说法——这些都是习近平主席在各类国际会议上的用语。该决议明确指出,“以合作共赢精神推进区域合作至关重要,因为它是确保阿富汗安全、稳定和社会经济发展以及建立人类命运共同体的一项有效举措。”

构建人类未来命运共同体的倡议表明,中国已成为建立世界新秩序的重要参与国,而世界新秩序应当使世界各地的人民都能受益,而不再是冷战后控制国际关系的那种零和博弈的思维模式。与世界上许多发达国家不同,中国主张的是合作共赢,而不是零和游戏。

 

构建人类命运共同体实践

在中国走向世界的同时,美国却在退出全球倡议和挑战。比如,最近美国总统唐纳德·特朗普决定撤出巴黎协定,退出联合国教科文组织,禁止其他国家的人进入美国,同时强调美国优先,这些都是保护主义和单边主义的具体表现。

另一方面,中国承诺积极应对全球气候问题,并主动采取走出去的战略。希望通过兴建公路、铁路、港口、信息和航空网络等基础设施把全球都连接起来。这些项目能够为全球的贸易、投资和旅游提供便利。

在非洲有许多最不发达和发展中国家,他们多数都得到了来自中国的各种援助。除了高水准的公路外,中国还在非洲修建了5600公里的铁路、9个港口、34个发电站、14个机场、68家医院、80个最先进的体育场馆以及200多所学校。中国还向非洲派出了24000多名医生,并为非洲培训了81000名医疗专业人员。位于肯尼亚的长达480公里的蒙巴萨-内罗毕铁路就是由中国提供资金和建造的,它现在的年运输能力已经达到2500万吨。非洲联盟目前所使用的新建筑也是中国帮助完工的,耗资2亿美元。

通过各种途径,在非洲国内生产总值的增幅中,中国的贡献超过了20%。根据麦肯锡公司2017年6月发布的一份报告,中国公司参与了非洲经济的许多行业,其中制造业占31%;服务业占25%;建筑和地产业占15%。据估计,现在在非洲运营的中国企业多达10000多家,它们中90%属于私营企业。这些企业雇用了许多非洲人,不仅帮助非洲国家减少了失业人数,还将先进的技能转移到了非洲。与非洲国家的情况相似,亚洲国家,比如老挝,也通过与中国的铁路连接获益良多。


⬆当地时间2018年1月3日,吉布提Nagad火车站,亚吉铁路开始全面商业运营


非洲人口的数目与中国人口的数目都超过了十亿,十亿人口间的贸易无疑会对世界经济产生极其重大的影响。中国正在发展成为世界上最大的消费市场,因此它肯定是非洲国家出口的理想之地。

目前中国与非洲国家间的贸易额超过了2000亿美元。世界发展的不均衡导致了不稳定和冲突的发生。现在人口从容易发生冲突的地区和贫穷国家向发达国家的流动就是因为许多国家的经济发展不平衡、失业率高、生活水平低下以及缺乏和平和安全感造成的。不平等现象有许多不同的种类,它存在于国家内部和国与国之间,而它的起因也不尽相同。如果不平等现象日益加剧的话,就可能会引发冲突和战争,这对国家乃至世界的安全都会构成威胁。

缩小富人与穷人间的差距也是命运共同体愿景的一部分。收入不平等无论在贫穷国家还是富裕国家都是一大问题。在过去的三十多年里,中国在经济建设方面取得了令人瞠目的成功,还帮助数百万人口摆脱了贫困,这使得它的国际地位和影响力获得了大幅提升,但是即便如此,两位数增长所产生利益也没有做到人人均衡地分享。不过,它的下一步愿景就是要解决这一不平等的现象,同时还要努力让全世界人民都享有发展权。

当前,大约36%的非洲人每天的生活费不足一美元,这充分说明世界上富裕国家与贫穷国家间存在着多么大的不平等。亚洲国家的许多人民也面临着同样的不平等。而中国通过重建丝绸之路这一全球方案能够使这些最不发达国家的经济状况得到改善。中国的一带一路倡议对于消灭不平等将发挥很大作用,因为通过投资、贸易和基础设施建设,它可以带动其他发展中国家的经济发展。

在过去的几十年里,中国通过采取改革开放的政策,帮助7亿人摆脱了贫困。自2010年以来,中国国际扶贫中心每年都会组织举办一次中国——非洲减贫与发展论坛,其目的就是加强中国和非洲之间的交流与合作,减少贫困,促进发展。中国利用该论坛向非洲国家分享了其在扶贫方面的经验。中国为非洲的扶贫努力付出了很多,包括提供农业技术培训和建立扶贫示范村。这一论坛也是中国与发展中国家共享未来发展的组成部分。

 

造福人类社会需要各国同心协力

如果中国在全球范围开展的项目以及它的“构建人类命运共同体”的愿景能够在国际社会顺利实施的话,我们就可以逐渐战胜目前存在的那些困难,一个美好的世界也就指日可待。这一愿景的实现还意味着中国不仅在为自己人民的利益着想,也在为世界人民的利益着想。但是它的实现不能单靠中国一方的资源和努力,世界各国,包括政府、国际机构、私营企业、非政府组织、商业团体、宗教组织、智库和学术机构,需要同心协力,才能让这个世界更好地造福人类社会。

中国拥有最古老的文明,同时又是世界上人口最多的国家。中国古代的四大发明举世闻名,包括造纸、印刷、火药和指南针。拿破仑曾这样评价过中国,“它是一个睡着的巨人,让它睡着吧,因为如果它醒过来,它会震动世界。”这一预言不仅在中国过去几十年的发展中得到了印证,而且还将在其构建人类命运共同体理念指导下重建丝绸之路的愿景中进一步体现出来。

中国在世界范围重建丝绸之路和构建人类命运共同体的愿景充分表明,中国坚定地致力于促进世界和平、国际合作和包容均衡的发展。它的愿景被纳入了国际公约也显示出其外交政策是成功的,而且它正在改革和制定世界新秩序方面扮演着重要的角色。(编辑:张梅)



Work Together in Revamping the Better World


By Melaku Mulualem K.,Foreign Policy Analysis Department Head in the Ethiopian Foreign Relation Strategic Studies Institute



Globally
the role of China is increasingfrom time to time. A few decades before,
China’s influence in the world was notsignificant. Even if China is
bordering with fourteen different countries, nowChina is being felt as
close neighborhood to majority countries in the world.The traditional
definition of neighborhood with common boarder is beingoutdated by
China. This profound feeling comes neither by military might
norpropaganda, but by economic strength and long lasting vision for
itself and theworld at large.

China has
successful foreign policy.TheFive Guiding Principles of Chinese peaceful
coexistence which was set out inthe first half of the 1950s by Premier
Zhou Enlai has become a base for herpresent foreign policy. These
principles include: “mutual respect forsovereignty and territorial
integrity; mutual non-aggression; non-interferencein each other’s
internal affairs; equality and mutual benefit and peacefulcoexistence”.

Based
on the above principles China couldestablish her bilateral and
multilateral relations with other countries of theworld.These five
principles led to the development of additional concepts suchas:-win-win
relations, opposing hegemonism, maintaining world peace,
developinggood-neighborly relations, establishing friendly and
cooperative relations,opening to the outside world, opposingterrorism
among others.

In November 2012 the 18th
National Congressof the Communist Party of China proposed the concept of
"a community ofshared future for all humankind" for the first time. For
the last fouryears President Xi has reflected this important global
concept in many otherinternational conferences. At the 19th National
Congress of CPC, ChinesePresident Xi Jinping again stressed that China
pursues a development road ofpeace and promotes building a community of
shared future for mankind.

In 2013 he
also put forward great thoughtthat will benefit both China and the
humankinds of the world at large.The Beltand Road Initiative that
targeted toconnect Asia with Europe and Africa viaoverland and maritime
routes that cover more than 60 countries and around 4.4billion people of
the world was introduced by President Xi.Both initiatives aresteps
forward from former passive posture of China to designing a better
worldorder.Chinese President Xi Jinping recently also said that

Chinese
diplomacy in the new era is topromote the construction of a new type of
international relations and acommunity of shared future…to uphold
mutual respect, fairness and justice andwin-win cooperation, abandon law
of the jungle, promote dialogue andpartnership instead of confrontation
and alliances…A communityof shared future will bring lasting peace,
universal security, commonprosperity, openness and inclusiveness as well
as a clean and beautiful world

In his
statement the president hasclarified the need of new types of world
order in which the people of the worldcan get benefits. According to one
source “the Belt and Road Initiative, whichcomprises the Silk Road
Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road,illustrates the
philosophy and vision of a shared future for mankind”.

China
has already started constructions ofnetworks by pumping huge amount of
money and labour. From these global projectsdeveloped, developing and
least developed countries are benefiting.In order tobe inclusive and
make the global projects known by governments China hosted theBelt and
Road Summit in May 2017. The Summit shows that its benefits will
beshared by all and the contribution to globalization is tremendous.

The
community of shared future for mankindis a broad concept. It can
incorporates the concern to the internationalcommunities; world peace
and security; global sustainabledevelopment;eradication of poverty and
hunger;expansion of literacy; equitableshare of the global common;
equality and justice; good governance; law andorder; mutual respect;
human health anddignity; inclusive development;living inharmony; gender
equality; celebrates diversity, openness, cooperation andpartnership;
not compromising the benefit of the future generations etc.

On
17 March 2017 Security CouncilAuthorizes Year-Long Mandate Extension
for United Nations Assistance Mission inAfghanistan, Adopting Resolution
2344. This Resolution adopted the idea ofwin-win andcreating “a
community of shared future for mankind”— the exactwords emphasized by
President Xi at various international conferences. TheResolution stated
about “the crucial importance of advancing regionalcooperation in the
spirit of win-win cooperation as an effective means topromote security,
stability and economic and social development in Afghanistanand the
region to create a community of shared future for mankind”

President
Xi’s proposal to the community ofshared future for mankind shows that
China is one of the major countries inredesigning new world order that
can benefit peoples of the world rather thanthe zero-sum game mentality
of the Cold War that used to dominate internationalrelations. Unlike
many other developed countries China underlines thepreference of win-win
cooperation than zero-sum game.

When
China is going global, the U.S.A isretreating from global initiatives
and challenges. For instance recently theU.S. President Donald Trump has
withdrawn from the Paris Agreement, leftUNESCO, blocked entrance of
some peoples to his country, and focuses on AmericaFirst which are
symbols of protectionism and unilateralism. On the other hand

China
is showing her commitments by work onglobal climate issuesand also
energetically going out globally. It focuses onglobal connectivity
through building of infrastructures like road, railways;maritime
connectivity, information and aviation networks. These
projectsfacilitate trade, investment and tourism in the world.

There
are many least developed anddeveloping countries in Africa. Many of
them are getting various supports fromChina. In addition to well
standard high ways construction, China has builtmore than 5600KM of
railways, 9 ports, 34 power plants,14 airports, 68hospitals, 80 state of
the art stadiums and more than 200 schools in Africa.China has also
sent more than 24,000 medical personnel to Africa and providedtraining
for 81,000 African medical professionals.For instance the
480-kmMombasa-Nairobi Railway in Kenya, which is funded and constructed
by China, hasan annual transportation capacity of 25 million tons. The
current African Unionnew building is also constructed by China covering
200million dollars.

As various sources
show China hascontributed more than 20% to Africa’s GDP growth.According
to a report issuedby McKinsey and Company in June 2017, Chinese firms
operate across many sectorsof Africa’s economy of which 31% are in
manufacturing, 25% are in services and15% are in construction and real
estate. It is estimated that more than tenthousand Chinese firms are
operating in Africa, of which ninety percent areprivately owned.These
firms have employed many Africans that contributed toreduction of
unemployment as well as transferring new skills to Africa. Similarto
African countries, Asian countries such as Laos got benefit through
railwaylink with China.

The population
number of Africa and Chinaare in billion each. Trade interactions
between the billion-to-billion peoplewill have great economic impact in
the world. Since China is becoming the world’slargest consumption place,
it is ideal destination for exports of Africacountries.

Currently the trade volume between ChinaandAfrica is more than 200 billion.

Unequal
development in the worldiscontributing to instability and conflicts.
The present flow of migration fromconflict prone areas and poor
countries to developed countries is thereflection of unbalanced economic
development, unemployment, poor standard oflivingand lack of peace and
security in many countries. There are differentnature and pattern of
inequalities. Inequality can be seen within a country oramong countries.
There are various causes for the inequalities in bothcategories. If the
gaps of inequalities increase there is a possibility ofconflict and war
between and among people. This will affect the security of acountry and
the world at large.



Narrowing
gap between the rich and the poorpeople in a country should also be
part of this shared vision. This incomeinequality is the problem of the
world be it rich or poor country. While Chinahas achieved stunning
economic success and pulled millions out of poverty overthe past three
decades and its international prestige and influence have rose,the
benefits of its double-digit growth have not been equally shared.
However,her vision will answer the questions of both inequalities and
the right todevelopment agenda of the world.

Currently,
about 36% of African people liveon less than one dollar per day. This
clearly shows the inequality between therich and poor countries of the
world. Many people in Asian countries have alsofaced such inequalities.
The global project of China through re-silking willbenefit least
developing countries to improve their economies. Thus, the Beltand Road
Initiative of Chinawill help to overcome inequalities by helping
otherdeveloping countries to advance their economies through investment,
trade andinfrastructure construction.

Over
the past few decades, China hasconducted reforms and opened up its
economy that helped to manage 700 millionpeople to be out of poverty.
The annual China-Africa Poverty Reduction andDevelopmentForum has been
held by the International Poverty ReductionCenter inChina since 2010
with an aim of enhancing exchangesand cooperation to alleviatepoverty
and promote developmentbetween China and Africa. This forum has
helpedChina to share its experience in poverty reduction.China has
contributed toAfrica’s povertyreduction efforts by providingtraining on
agricultural technologyandestablishing demonstrationvillages for poverty
alleviation. Such forum is partof shared future between developing
countries and China.

If the global
projects of China and hervision “to shared future for mankind” are
successful the internationalcommunities will overcome difficulties and a
better world will be in place.Thesuccess of this vision also means
China will fulfill the interests of both itsown people and the people of
the world as a whole. But this great vision cannotbe a reality only by
the resources and efforts of China. For the implementationof these
global visions international players including governments,international
organizations, private sectors, non-governmental organizations,business
communities, religious institutions,think tanks and academia shouldwork
together in revamping the better world to human beings.

China
is one of the oldest civilizationswith the largest population in the
world. China is well-known for its ancientinventions including paper
making technology, type printing, gun powder andcompass. At one time
Napoleon had said about China “It is a sleeping giant, letit sleep for
if it wakes it would shake the world”. This prophecy is beingnoticed in
China in the last few decades’ development and her vision inre-silking
the world throughthe philosophy of a shared future for mankind.

China’s
visions in re-silking the world andshared future for mankind shows that
China is committed to promote world peace,international cooperation,
inclusive and balanced development. Theincorporation of her vision in
international conventions demonstrated thatChina is successful in her
diplomacy as well as playing her role in reformingand crafting new world
order.