文I查理斯（Charles Manuel）南非驻华使馆公使衔参赞（经济） 翻译I潘心怡
● 国家能源法案，2008(Act No. 34 of 2008)
● 石油产品法案,1977 (Act No.120 of 1977)
● 电力监管法案 , 2006(Act No.4 of 2006)
南非仅有一个核电站(Koeberg)，该基站额定装机容量为 1,930兆瓦 (5%) 。该工厂的建设始于1976年，并于1985年全面投入运营。截至2010年3月31日，该工厂生产了12,806千兆瓦时电力，使用了30tpa的浓缩铀。政府已近向Koeberg提供了未来8年的合作合同，目的在于使核能在2030年占到南非基础负荷的17%。
South Africa’s Energy Agenda
By Charles Manuel, Minister Counselor ( Economic ) of South African Embassy in China
The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the formulation of energy policy and planning in South Africa. It is the responsibility of the DOE to ensure that the right combination of policies an technologies are applied to ensure the linkages between economic growth, the increasing energy demand and the associated energy-related carbon dioxide emissions are managed as South Africa increases its energy generation capacity. South Africa’s energy policies are developed to address issues of energy security, energy access, sustainability, affordability and appropriate quality of service to the end users.
Energy is an enabler of economic growth and the attainment of national policy imperatives. The Integrated Energy Plan (IEP) provide for broad national objectives, overarching national plans and roadmaps. The underlying plans are informed by IEP but will go further in providing detail regarding the sector plan, e.g, the Integrated Resources Plan (IRP) is informed by the IEP and will elaborate on the electricity supply industry capacity requirements. The Energy sector is underpinned by Integrated Energy Plan and the Integrated Resources Plan.
The energy sector is regulated by the following acts:
● The National Energy Act, 2008 (Act No. 34 of 2008)
● The Petroleum Products Act, 1977 (Act No.120 of 1977)
● The Electricity Regulation Act , 2006 (Act No.4 of 2006)
South African Electricity Industry
Electricity generation dominated by state-owned power company Eskom, which currently produces over 96.7% of the power used in the country. Eskom has a current nominal installed capacity of 44,175MW. The remainder coming from various IPPs that produce more than 6000 MW overall as a result of four bid rounds since 2011. In 2014, 21 IPP renewable energy projects with a combined installed capacity of 1076 MW were brought onto the national grid. South Africa needs over 45,600 MW new generation capacity by 2030. Eskom is part of Southern African Power Pool, a group of utilities in the region aiming to create a common market for electricity in the region.
Electricity Production in South Africa
Coal fired 92.6%
Nuclear power 5.7%
Gas turbine 0.1%
Currently, the transmission of electricity in South Africa is undertaken by Eskom. The company has over 28,000km of transmission lines spanning the entire country. Municipalities account for 40% of the total electricity sales and 60% of the customer base.
Between 2005 and April 2013 South Africa expanded transmission lines nationwide by 4686 km, increased transmission substation capacity by 23,775 mega-volt amperes (MVA) and made capital upgrades of $5.7bn. From April 2013 to March 2014, Eskom, commissioned 811 km of transmission power lines and 3790 MVA of transmission substation capacity. For the 2015/16 financial year, Eskom has allocated $82.3m for transmission spending, including a significant $25m contract to Abengoa for the building of two 174-km-long, 400-KV transmission lines from the Medupi station in Lephalale to the Borutho substation in Mokopane.
Eskom has planned $12bn of spending on transmission infrastructure from 2015 to 2024, according to the utility’s transmission development plan. Around 89% of this will be allocated to capacity expansion, with the rest divided between refurbishment, capital spares, production equipment, lands and rights, and strategy. A total of 13,396 km of transmission lines will come on-stream in that time, with 5235 km by 2019 and 8161 km from 2020 to 2024. Investment in transmission infrastructure, as well as providing connectivity in areas far away from major load centres, forms part of a strategy to support regional power corridors, connecting generation pools to one another more efficiently.
Electricity distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electricity to end users, currently undertaken by Eskom, together with local municipalities.
The electricity distribution sector comprises 187 licensed distributors, almost all of whom are local municipalities. These municipalities serve 52% of customers, with Eskom distribution directly serving the remaining 48%. The manufacturing sector consumes around 40% of the electricity distributed, with mining and domestic usage following thereafter at 18% each. The bulk of the remainder is accounted for by the power requirements of the agricultural and transport sectors.
At present, electricity sales make up over 25% of municipality revenue and can reach up to 34% in the largest urban areas.
Tariffs & Management
Electricity prices in South Africa have increased four-fold since 2007. Eskom’s revenue requirements dictate the tariff, which has been a challenging deficiency at a time of rising costs and decreasing output. The tariff structure sets a revenue target for Eskom, but as costs for production due to the use of diesel for feedstock, refurbishment of aging plants, and maintenance have increased, overall electricity output has fallen. This has caused the per unit price of electricity to rise significantly, impacting both business and consumers.
The National Energy Regulator of South Africa (NERSA) institutes five-year tariff arrangements, with the latest implemented in 2012 and allotting an 8% increase every year from 2013 to 2018.
Sources Of Power
Ninety three percent (93%) of power in South Africa is generated from coal fired power stations. South Africa is the 5th largest coal producing country in the world with coal reserves of 30,408mt (3.68% of world total). Coal accounts for 86% of Eskom’s nominal current capacity (37,755MW).
South Africa is committed to the management of efficient use of its coal through the employment of Clean Coal Technologies such as Carbon Capture Storage (CCS) and the stabilization of CO2 emissions. To this end South Africa has developed a roadmap that will lead to the commissioning of a commercial scale plant in 2025.
South Africa only has one nuclear power station (Koeberg), a base-load station with a nominal installed capacity of 1,930MW (5%). Construction for the plant began in 1976 and full operation in 1985. The plant produced 12,806 GWh electricity in year ended 31 March 2010 and uses 30tpa of enriched uranium. Government authorized contracts in place to supply Koeberg for the next 8 years. It is intended that nuclear will comprise 17% of South Africa’s base load energy mix by 2030.
The Renewable Energy Independent Power Producers Programme (REIPPP) to procure 17.8 GW of renewable generation capacity by 2030 was launched in 2011. The REIPPP, combined with the completion of the technical work for solar and wind energy manufacturing strategies, has provided significant opportunity to South Africa to become a major manufacturer of componentry for renewable energy projects which will not only put electricity on the grid, but will also support industrialization and job creation.
The REIPPP has attracted Rmb 92 billion in investment and is by far the most successful infrastructure program delivered in SA and is one of the largest drivers of creating a green, industrialised economy. The combined procurement spend of Rmb 71 billion has been a substantial stimulus for local manufacturing and the green economy.
Despite recent offshore discoveries in neighbouring Mozambique, locally sourcing significant amounts of fossil fuels other than coal seems unlikely in the short term. Even so, there remain plans to increase output from gas and unconventional deposits. South Africa’s proven oil reserves have remained fairly stagnant and stand at 15m barrels, according to the US Energy Information Administration, while PetroSA has estimated prospective offshore oil and gas resources at 21.75bn barrels and 62.4trn cu feet (tcf).
South Africa’s west coast accounts for 10.2bn barrels and 27.7 tcf of the total, while the south coast was estimated to hold 9.55bn barrels of oil and 25.5 tcf of gas, respectively. PetroSA is the only operational player, producing less than 5000 barrels per day of crude oil and lease condensate from its Oribi and Oryz fields and 39bn cu feet from its F-A and South Coast Complex fields.
The Ibhubesi gas project off the west coast, which is being developed under a joint venture between PetroSA and Sunbird Energy, would see an initial flow rate of 100m standard cu feet of gas per day by early 2019 via a 400-km pipeline to an onshore gas receiving facility near Ankerlig in the Western Cape.
Following the shale boom in the US, unconventional exploration and production has increased around the world and has met with some success in South Africa – although it has not been without its challenges. In 2013 the EIA estimated South Africa’s technically recoverable shale gas reserves to be 390 tcf, the eighth-largest reserves in the world.
The Whitehill formation, located in the Karoo Basin and thought to be among the most prolific reserves in the country, holds an estimated 36 tcf of recoverable shale gas. In 2009 and 2010 PASA awarded technical cooperation permits to four international energy companies to conduct geological surveys of potential shale reserves in different areas of the Karoo Basin. Following this, the government placed a 19-month ban on fracking as it conducted environmental impact assessments amid concerns over its potential impact on aquifers and ecosystems. The ban was later lifted and the government announced its intention to proceed with the issuing of licenses once the shale regulations are published.
Rising energy prices, increasingly conducive energy policies and access to incentives have stimulated interest in and the growth of the Energy Services (ES) and Energy Efficiency (EF) market. Energy Services covers both Energy Efficiency (EE) and Embedded Generation (EG) services. There are 4 main groups that play a role in South Africa’s ES market: Consultancy Service Providers;
Technology Suppliers; Energy Service Companies, and Engineering Procurement Contractors. The targeted sectors for EE are industry and mining, power generation, commercial and public sector buildings, residential sector and transport sector.
Industrial energy efficiency programmes are underway and tax incentives and rebates are used to encourage sustainable energy sector development and energy use through efficient practices.
One of the highlights driving ES growth in South Africa, is that embedded generation installations are now seen to increase the value of a commercial building by at least 30% over the cost of installing the system. The market for the installation, operation and maintenance of Rooftop PV is estimated at RMB1 billion over the period 2016-2019. Efforts are also now underway to develop the solar thermal market in the food and beverage sector.
The South African Regional Energy Agenda
Modern energy services are crucial to human well-being and to a country’s economic development,
Globally over 1.3 billion people are without access to electricity. More than 95% of these people are either in sub-Saharan African or developing Asia and 84% are in rural areas.
South Africa’s energy diplomacy towards the region is informed by the country’s foreign policy towards the continent. It is more concerned with alleviating energy poverty and access to modern energy services. The country’s approach is developmental and mutually beneficial in its approach, Eskom’s rehabilitation of interconnectivity infrastructure at the Sothern African Power Pool (SAPP),as well as promoting trade in electricity within the SAPP.
The African Energy Agenda is premised on the commitment by the African governments to pursue a sustainable development of energy generation capacity and infrastructure to support economic development to unearth the continent’s industrial capacity. Priority is given to energy projects that have a regional impact and deepen regional integration, providing capacity to the regional power pools to deliver. The vision for the development of energy in Africa, ‘Horizon 2040’, is articulated in the Programme on Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA) with the aim to ensure energy security; universal access; low energy costs; and sustainability.
The Department of Energy’s vision by 2025 is to improve the energy mix by having 30% of clean energy.
This will be achieved through the following strategic objectives:
develop effective legislation, policies and guidelines, encourage investment in the energy sector;
diversify energy mix, improve access and connectivity, provision of quality and affordable energy, promote safe use of energy and transform the energy sector; encourage economic development, promote job creation in the energy sector; and facilitate the implementation of Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency Technologies and also promote and regulate the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) activities.