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联合国粮农组织:减贫需要多方合作


Poverty Reduction Requires Multi-Sectoral Cooperation


——Interview With Vincent Martin, FAO Representative in China and DPR Korea


Chang Hao, China Investment



China
Investment:You have rich experience in poverty reduction in China. What
do you think is the key to China’s success? Are there any successful
cases of innovation in FAO’s poverty reduction work in China?


Vincent Martin:China
has achieved remarkable progress regarding poverty reduction, and
managed to lift over 800 million people out of extreme poverty over the
past 40 years. Multi-sectoral strategies and targeted approaches have
been key to China’s success as well as strong cooperation among
Government, institutions, public and private sector.


China’s
achievements have been the result of the government’s strong leadership
and the mobilization of massive resources and innovative practices.
Starting from agricultural reforms, followed by boosting the rural
economy other than the farming sector, and through territorial and
targeted approaches, the root causes of poverty have been carefully
identified and efficiently tackled at source.


Although
there may be many other factors, I have identified four key elements
which contributed to China’s successful strategy 1) strong leadership at
all levels of the government and the society at large, taking poverty
reduction as a priority 2) a multi-sectoral approach which brings
together industry growth, agriculture development, social protection,
health, education and ecological restoration 3) The participation of all
segments of society from government, to enterprises, NGOs, and ordinary
people, to pursue inclusive development 4) Targeting to identify and
reach the poorest of the poor, and to provide support to help them move
out of poverty. This has been especially important as the government is
cracking the tough nut by 2020.


In terms of
innovation, China introduced a number of innovative solutions to fight
against poverty, such as the use of e-commerce to better connect farmers
to the markets, when fighting against rural poverty. Likewise, the FAO
China office has embarked on an innovation journey, identifying
innovation as a key pillar of its Country Programming Framework (CPF)
2016-2020. New technologies such as e-commerce,
e-rural-extension-services and knowledge-exchange platforms ought to be
used to serve rural development. In particular, we are exploring the use
of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) tools to innovate
our traditional Farmer Field School (FFS) flagship programme and unlock
the potential of innovations. FFS+ICTs for poverty alleviation will
allow knowledge and expertise to reach the most remote farmers, will be
tailored to the needs of the poor and could be of great value to
agricultural extension and poverty reduction efforts in China and
elsewhere in the world. E-commerce, e-services, drones and data
crowdsourcing models could help farmers improve their livelihood through
better income generation. 


FAO and Tsinghua
University have also launched an 8-week postgraduate course on this
subject using user-centred design thinking methods to help create
innovative services, products, and models for fast-tracking poverty
reduction and enhance rural development
(http://www.fao.org/china/news/detail-events/en/c/1107420/) .

China Investment:What do you think are the challenges for China’s poverty reduction practices?

Vincent Martin:
The
last phase of poverty reduction is certainly the most difficult one.
While China’s achievements are undeniable, poverty remains entrenched in
rural areas and there remain 30.46 Million rural people living below
the national poverty line  in China. As China entered into a ‘New
Normal’, which features a lower economic growth rate, a changing
economic structure, and a transition from input/investment driven to
innovation-driven development, the specific challenges encountered in
the agricultural sector are embedded in these new dilemmas. As one of
the guiding economic development tasks for the country during the 13th
Five-year Development Period from 2016 to 2020, the supply-side
structural reform was initiated to address the challenges encountered in
this transitional economic period. Its implication in the agriculture
sector includes the adjustment of the supply structure, ensuring
sufficient agricultural production while better matching the consumption
needs, and improving the overall competitiveness of agricultural
products. All these elements fit into the long-term vision of a
sustainable and modern agriculture in China.


The
19th Congress of Communist Party of China convened in October 2017 put
forward the strategy of rural revitalization as the highest priority for
promoting rural development. The annual Central Rural Work Conference
held in December 2017 and the No.1 central document of 2018 further
elaborated on this vision and timeline in implementing the strategy.


I
believe the main challenge today is to run and win this last mile
poverty eradication race, and above all prevent people to fall back into
the poverty trap beyond 2020, through a set of forward thinking and
well-coordinated policy and socio-economic measures. In this endeavor,
the need to find creative solutions to face increasing challenges,
introduce tools such as ICTs and disruptive technologies has become more
important than ever.

China Investment:How does FAO
secure funds for poverty reduction? What kind of cooperation is in need
for FAO from the society? What do you think is the role of government,
private sector and social organizations in poverty reduction?

Vincent Martin:
FAO’s
work could not have been done without the support of its committed
partners. Mobilizing resources, especially in the case of China, due to
the country’s considerable economic growth, has become increasingly
challenging. However, FAO has formed new dynamic partnerships with the
public and private sector. In addition to the exchange of expertise and
knowledge, partners particularly from the private sector have supported
poverty reduction projects and events through generous funding. The
Ministry of Agriculture as well as leading Chinese institutions such as
IPRCC, CIIC, and Tsinghua University for instance have participated and
largely contributed to initiatives such as the FFS, or the
knowledge-sharing database or poverty reduction events for example. FAO
also uses its own internal resources in a catalytic way to test new
ideas, innovative approaches and build partnerships to scale up good
practices.


We believe that all segments of society,
government, private sector and social organizations must work together,
in an enabling environment in order to achieve the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) to eradicate poverty and hunger by 2030
(referred as SDG1 and 2). All actors have different assets such as
financing, knowledge, expertise, accessibility, technology and ideas
that must be brought together in order to address those critical
bottlenecks.

China Investment:Could you introduce FAO’s partnership strategies for the realization of FAO mandates?

Vincent Martin:
FAO
is convinced that hunger and malnutrition can be eradicated in our
lifetime. To meet the Zero Hunger Challenge, political commitment and
major alliances with key stakeholders are crucial. Partnerships are at
the heart of FAO’s mission to help build a consensus for a world without
hunger. The effectiveness and credibility of the organization as a
knowledge sharing forum and unique technical center of excellence,
knowledge and technical expertise depends to a considerable degree on
its ability to work and develop strategic partnerships. Only through
such effective collaboration with governments, civil society, private
sector, academia, research centers and cooperatives, and through making
use of each other’s knowledge and comparative advantages, can food
insecurity and malnutrition be defeated.


Strategic
partnerships are a crucial enabler for achieving the goals set by the
2030 agenda for sustainable development. In developing and implementing
the FAO China Country Programming Framework, FAO seeks broad partnership
with governments at all levels, civil society, the private sector,
academia and research institutions UN agencies, funds and programmes and
international financial institutions. Special attention will be given
to developing RBA (Rome Based Agencies, which brings together FAO, IFAD
and WFP) partnerships and joint interventions in the area of poverty
reduction and rural transformation. To the extent possible, this will be
achieved through a bottom-up approach based on convergence zones where
the three agencies are present and operating projects.

China Investment:What do you think are the valuable lessons from China’s poverty reduction experience to the world?

Vincent Martin:
Two
decades ago, China started leveraging the learning of its own
achievements at home to help fight hunger and rural poverty in other
developing countries with similar challenges. China’s commitment and
dedication should and must be followed in developing economies in order
to reduce global poverty and hunger. As previously mentioned,
leadership, commitment, a multi-sectoral approach, a targeted strategy
and constant innovation are elements that other countries should
integrate in their poverty reduction strategies.


Innovation
especially, cannot be highlighted enough. China has revolutionized its
agricultural sector through a long-term vision embodied by high level of
investment in agriculture research, structural reforms and supporting
policies. China sets an example in the area of agricultural development
and has accumulated a wealth of experience and techniques that can be
shared with the rest of the developing world.


As
one of the most important partners and largest contributors in FAO’s SSC
Programmes, China has, since 1996, provided supports to agricultural
and rural development in 28 countries, working on a wide range of
technical areas, including irrigation, aquaculture, horticulture,
livestock, crop production, agroforestry, agricultural mechanization and
agribusiness.


In addition, FAO is also
facilitating poverty reduction policy and knowledge sharing, through its
China-Africa rural poverty reduction knowledge exchange platform and
trainings. FAO organized the first webinar of the series Rural Poverty
Reduction – End Poverty Talks – in partnership with the International
Poverty Reduction Centre of China and the International Policy Centre
for Inclusive Growth. The webinar introduced the experience of China in
SSC for poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.


During
an international poverty reduction forum in last May, co-hosted by FAO,
the International Poverty Reduction Centre in China, the China Internet
Information Centre, World Bank and ADB, the five co-hosts jointly
launched the Global Poverty Reduction Online Knowledge Sharing Database.
The database aims to collect and share poverty reduction good practices
which are technically replicable for both China and worldwide users.
This will be a useful source of reference for countries as they are
working to achieve SDG1 and 2 which are intimately intricated.

China
Investment:As we know FAO has made remarkable contribution to the
advancement of South-South cooperation, do you think those contributions
and lessons in South-South cooperation could be applied for the Belt
and Road Initiative?

Vincent Martin:
Since the SSC
Initiative was launched in 1996, FAO has been facilitating the sharing
of practical development solutions in food and agriculture, and has
worked together with about 90 host countries. Over the past two decades,
more than USD 370 million have been mobilized for SSC and Triangular
Cooperation.


As previously mentioned, two decades
ago, China began to leverage the learning of its achievements to help
fight hunger and rural poverty globally. The FAO-China SSC Program
facilitates the exchange and uptake of development solutions, promote
platforms for knowledge networking, mobilize upstream policy support and
fosters an enabling environment for effective SSC at all levels.


FAO
views the Belt and Road Initiative as a fresh momentum for the
formation of innovative and sustainable SSC modalities and flagship
programs. This large-scale initiative seeks wider and deeper
partnerships and explores a balanced, equitable and inclusive
development model that will push for the achievements of the 2030 agenda
in countries along the Belt and Road.

China
Investment:What do you think is the future role of FAO in the Belt and
Road countries and what kind of contributions could FAO make for them?


Vincent Martin:Last
year the Ministry of Agriculture issued its strategy paper for
supporting the BRI which noted that BRI countries share the goal "to
fight hunger, eradicate poverty, and achieve food and nutrition
security".


These are objectives which FAO shares in
common with the BRI. The global goals of FAO are: the eradication of
hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition: eliminating poverty and
driving forward economic and social progress for all and; promoting the
sustainable management and utilization of natural resources.


Given
these common goals of the BRI and FAO, it is clear that there should be
many opportunities for FAO to collaborate with China, the Ministry of
Agriculture, national research institutions and other countries on the
implementation of the BRI. With these overall objectives in mind we have
developed a BRI umbrella programme and identified four specific
technical areas which we suggest working on together:


1)
Inclusive and sustainable value chain development, 2) Bringing
innovation to the field through digital-agriculture 3) Control of
transboundary animal and plant diseases 4) Protecting Biodiversity and
Improving Resilience to Climate Change.

China
Investment:Last May, FAO Director General José Graziano da Silva wrote
in an op-ed on People’s Daily, “the Belt and Road Initiative is an
initiative that FAO strongly supports and it is a road that we will once
again confidently navigate together as we move forward.”  Has FAO
developed any concrete strategic plans to live up to Director General’s
remarks and made efforts for poverty reduction in the Belt and Road
countries?

Vincent Martin:
As earlier mentioned, we are
moving ahead with our partners through a comprehensive programme that
contains four main pillars, which are all interrelated. Let me give you
more details about these priority areas.


Inclusive and
sustainable value chain development: Improved infrastructure will
facilitate access to new and more distant markets. Farmers will be able
to reduce input and transportation costs, reach further markets in a
shorter time and gain access to information, technical services and
advice that will enhance higher quality of products and improve
productivity. However, the extent to which these opportunities reach the
most vulnerable, depends on the capacity of governments to deliver
services, policies and regulations governing investments in place in the
hosting countries. If these new opportunities are going to be developed
in an inclusive, pro-poor way, benefiting the local communities,
attention must be given to developing the entire value chain and not
simply the production side.


Bringing innovation to
the field through digital-agriculture: The BRI will open new
possibilities for the development of digital-agriculture innovations, or
the use of information and communication technologies to improve the
efficiency and effectiveness of agricultural production.
Digital-agriculture is another area where great opportunities can be
found to increase the pro-poor and rural development impacts of these
infrastructure investments. By providing remote areas with improved
access to information, digital-agriculture can reduce or overcome many
of the constraints that contribute to poverty. Digital-agriculture
includes providing access to information on plant and animal diseases,
production techniques, quality standards, specialist advice, access to
financial services and training. This creates the opportunity for
farmers to leap-frog on the path of technical development, as they can
immediately start using the newest technology. However, achieving
inclusive, pro-poor outcomes with e-agriculture must be deliberately
designed into the programmes from the outset.


Enhance
the control of transboundary animal and plant diseases: the increased
international trade in agricultural products that the BRI will bring
about, comes with increased risks of spreading animal and plant diseases
between countries. FAO already has extensive global experience in the
area, ensuring that expanded trade is carried out in a safe way and does
not pose a threat to vulnerable farmers, nor a health threat to
consumers. The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture and the FAO have been key
partners in this area and have been working closely together for many
years. 


Protecting Biodiversity and Improving Resilience to Climate Change.


Many
of the countries engaged in the BRI, and particularly those in SE Asia
and Central Asia, are among the most vulnerable to the impacts of
climate change. The risks they face include rising sea levels and risks
of flooding in countries along the Maritime Silk Road, as well as
droughts, desertification and extreme weather events in Central and East
Asia.


The poor are generally the most vulnerable to
the effects of climate change. Their livelihoods are more precarious and
susceptible to disruption, living as they do in more marginal areas and
with very limited resources available to adapt to the impact of climate
change. Any effort to eliminate global hunger and poverty must take
into account the impact of climate change on the poor and help identify
measures which can help them adapt to climate change.


There
is a high degree of complementarity between climate change and the
other sectors proposed for action under the programme of FAO/GoC
collaboration. Climate change must be taken into account when assessing
opportunities for value chain development; innovative applications of
ICTs and e-agriculture can be devised to improve resilience to climate
change and; the implications of climate change for the spread of disease
is well recognized.




中文版:



政府、民间、社会组织等社会各界必须通力合作。无论是资金、知识、专业经验、关系、技术还是想法,每个参与者都有不同的优势,应该集思广益、博采众长,共同应对严峻的瓶颈问题。



——专访联合国粮食及农业组织(FAO)驻华兼驻朝代表文森特·马丁(Vincent Martin)


《中国投资》:您在中国减贫领域有着丰富的阅历,那么请问您认为中国成功的关键在于什么?粮农组织在华的减贫工作中有哪些成功的创新实例可供分享?

 

文森特·马丁:中国在减贫方面取得了显著的成果,过去的40年里中国成功实现8千万人口脱贫。我认为中国成功的关键在于多部门联动战略、精准扶贫措施以及政府、机构、公共部门、私人部门之间的紧密合作关系。

 

中国的种种成就得益于中国政府强有力的领导、大规模的资源调配能力与创新实践能力。从农业改革到振兴农村经济,再到土地改革与精准扶贫,中国已经通过努力找到贫困发生的根本原因并在源头上进行有效治理。

 

对于中国战略的成功,我能想到的主要有四点基本因素。这四点就是:1)强有力的领导:各级政府与全体社会将减贫作为首要任务 2)多部门联动战略:兼顾发展产业、农业发展、社会保障、教育医疗与生态保护 3)全民参与:从政府机关、企事业单位、非政府组织再到普通人,都投入到包容性发展事业中 4)有针对性的切实目标:以识别并触达最贫困人口为目标,提供支持,帮助脱贫。这也成为政府在2020年啃下全面脱贫“硬骨头”的重中之重。

 

为了打赢脱贫攻坚战,中国开展了一系列创新举措,电子商务的应用连接农户和市场,帮助农民脱贫。粮农组织驻华办公室也同样踏上了创新的征程,我们将创新视为《中国——联合国粮农组织国别规划框架(20162020)》的重要支柱。电子商务、农村电子普及服务、知识交流平台等新技术需要应用于农村发展中,为此我们专门在信息与通信技术工具改造传统的农民田间学校旗舰项目方面进行了探索,以实现创新潜能释放。信息通信技术走进农民田间学校,专业知识得以惠及最偏远的农民,可以根据根据贫困人群的切身需求量体裁衣,这对中国乃至全世界的农业推广与减贫事业都有重要意义。电子商务、电子服务、无人机技术、数据众包模式可以提高农民收入,改善农民生计。

 

粮农组织携手清华大学开展了为期八周,有关技术与减贫结合主题的研究生学习课程,通过设计思维等工具推动创新服务、创新产品、创新模式的诞生,快速推进减贫事业,大力加强农村发展。

 

《中国投资》:您认为中国减贫事业面临哪些挑战?

 

文森特·马丁:行百里者半九十,中国减贫成就不可否认,但是贫穷仍是农村地区的痼疾,还有3046万农村人口生活在贫困线以下。随着中国经济进入新常态,经济增速放缓,经济结构转型。供给侧改革,作为中国“十三五”规划(2016-2020年)经济发展首要任务之一,是针对经济转型期间所面临的挑战而提出的。对农业的影响在于供给侧的调整,更好地满足消费需求的同时保证充足的农业生产供给,也在于提高农产品的整体竞争能力。刚刚说的这些都与长期视角下中国可持续、现代化农业发展相契合。

 

201710月召开的党的十九大提出实施乡村振兴战略,加快推动农业农村发展。201710月召开的中央农村工作会议,2018年中央一号文件对该战略设想以及战略实施时间表做了进一步阐释。

 

我认为当下主要挑战在于跑赢消灭绝对贫穷的“最后一公里”,最重要的是运用前瞻性思维、加强政策协调、在社会经济层面发力,防止2020年以后脱贫户返贫。为了实现这一目标,为日益增加的挑战寻求创新出路,应用信息通讯技术工具将比以往更重要。

 

《中国投资》:粮农组织如何为减贫事业筹备资金?需要与社会进行怎样的合作?您认为政府、民间、社会组织应怎样为减贫出力?

 

文森特·马丁:没有合作伙伴的倾力支持,我们的工作无法得到有效开展。粮农组织与公共、私人部门已经建立起新型的合作伙伴关系。在专业知识交流之外,我们的合作伙伴为减贫项目与活动贡献了资金和技术支持。中国农业部以及中国国际扶贫中心、中国互联网新闻中心、清华大学等单位都参与到农民田间学校建设、知识共享数据库搭建、减贫活动开展等倡议中,并作出了重大贡献。

 

我们相信为了实现在联合国可持续发展目标1 (消除极端贫困)和2 (零饥饿),政府、民间、社会组织等社会各界必须通力合作。无论是资金、知识、专业经验、关系、技术还是想法,每个参与者都有不同的优势,应该集思广益、博采众长,共同应对严峻的瓶颈问题。

 

《中国投资》:您可以介绍一下为了实现粮农组织的任务目标,你们缔结的战略伙伴关系吗?

 

文森特·马丁:粮农组织坚信解决饥饿和营养不良问题需要各方的通力合作。粮农组织的愿景是实现一个没有饥饿的地球。只有通过与政府、民间、学界、研究中心、合作社以及个人的有效合作,我们才能战胜粮食安全与营养不良问题。

 

达成战略合作伙伴关系对实现2030年可持续发展议程确立的目标有着至关重要的作用。在《中国——联合国粮农组织国别规划框架》的制定与实施过程中,粮农组织努力与各级政府、民间、私人部门、学界、研究所、基金、国际机构与联合国各大机构之间建立广泛的合作关系。

 

《中国投资》:您认为中国在减贫方面可以给全世界哪些宝贵的经验?

 

文森特·马丁:早在20年以前,中国便开始用自己本国成功的经验,帮助其他面临相似困境的发展中国家对抗饥饿与农村贫困。正如之前提到的那样,领导力、决心、多部门联动战略、明确的目标以及持续的创新力都是他国在减贫战略中应该借鉴的元素。

 

尤其是创新,怎么强调都不为过。中国在农业改造方面有着卓越的远见——大力投资农业研究、结构性改革与配套政策。中国成为农业发展领域的标杆,并积累了可供其他发展中国家借鉴的丰富经验与宝贵技术。

 

1996年以来,中国作为粮农组织南南合作项目最重要的合作伙伴与最大的贡献者之一,为28个国家的农业与农村发展提供助力,在广泛的技术领域进行投入,包括灌溉、水产、园艺、家畜、农作物保护、农林业、农业机械化、农业经济。

 

此外,粮农组织也在努力通过中非农村减贫知识交流平台,推动减贫政策与减贫知识分享。粮农组织与中国国际扶贫中心等伙伴共同举办了第一届农村减贫“终结贫穷”系列网络研讨会。网络研讨会介绍了中国在扶贫领域与非洲、美洲和亚洲其他国家进行南南合作的经验。

 

在去年五月一场国际减贫论坛上,粮农组织、世界银行、亚洲开发银行、中国国际扶贫中心、中国互联网新闻中心联合推出了“中外减贫案例库及在线案例分享平台”,旨在展示中国和世界的减贫经验与做法,推动国际减贫知识方案的共享交流。对于那些正在努力消除贫困、实现零饥饿的国家来讲,这些挑战其实是错综复杂的,而数据库便能给予他们一种参考,令他们受益匪浅。

 

《中国投资》:据我们所知,粮农组织对南南合作的推进作出了巨大贡献,您认为在南南合作上的投入与经验是否可以适用于“一带一路”倡议?

 

文森特·马丁:1996年南南合作倡议提出以来,粮农组织一直不断推动粮食与农业发展方面的务实措施共享。在过去20多年里,在南南合作与三方合作上调动了3.7亿多美金。

 

正如之前所提,20年前中国便开始分享自己的成果经验,帮助在全球范围内对抗饥饿与农村贫穷。粮农组织与中国的南南合作项目,促进了发展方案的交流与理解,推广了知识网络搭建平台,争取了政策支持,从而使各级南南合作得以有效开展。

 

“一带一路”倡议在粮农组织看来,为南南合作模式与旗舰项目的创新性与可持续性注入了新势能。这个大型倡议希望建立更广泛、更深入的合作伙伴关系,探索一个平衡、公平、包容的发展模式,推动一带一路沿线国家实现2030年可持续发展议程。

 

《中国投资》:您认为未来粮农组织在与我国签署共建“一带一路”合作协议的国家(和国际组织)中将会扮演怎样的角色?粮农组织可以为他们做出哪些贡献?

 

文森特·马丁:去年中国农业部发布了支持“一带一路”倡议的战略文件,表示签署“一带一路”倡议的国家(和国际组织)有一个共同目标——“抗击饥饿、消灭贫穷,实现粮食和营养安全”。

 

这些都是粮农组织与“一带一路”倡议共同的目标。粮农组织的全球目标是:战胜饥饿、粮食不安全和营养不良;实现粮食安全,确保人们正常获得积极健康生活所需的足够的优质食物。

 

鉴于“一带一路”倡议与粮农组织存在这么多共同目标,显而易见,粮农组织会有很多机会与中国农业部相关研究机构其以及他国家共同在“一带一路”倡议的实施上进行合作。秉承这些总体目标,粮农组织制定了一个“一带一路”倡议的总项目规划,并确定了四个有望开展合作的具体技术领域:

 

1) 发展具有包容性与可持续性的价值链

2)  发展数字化农业,为农业农村发展注入创新

3)  加强跨境动植物疾病防控

4)  保护生物多样性,提高对气候变化的适应力


中外减贫数据库在线分享平台


《中国投资》:去年五月,联合国粮农组织总干事达席尔瓦在《人民日报》发表文章,他说:“粮农组织大力支持‘一带一路’倡议,我们将再次携手、自信前行。”对此,粮农组织制定了哪些战略计划,为签署“一带一路”倡议国家(或国际组织)的减贫事业献力?

 

文森特·马丁:正如之前提到的,我们正与合作伙伴在一个全面综合的计划框架下展开合作,这个计划框架有四个相互关联的重要支柱,下面我详细介绍一下这些重点领域。

 

发展包容性和可持续性价值链:基础设施的改善能够让新的更遥远的市场变得触手可及;农民们将能够以更少的投入和交通成本,在更短时间内抵达更远的市场,获得能够提升产品质量和生产率的信息、技术服务和建议。然而,这些机会将在多大程度上惠及最弱势群体,取决于东道国政府通过服务、政策和监管,管理已到位投资的能力。若要以具有包容性、偏重于贫困人口的方式利用这些机会并惠及当地社区,必须重视整个价值链的发展,而非仅仅局限于生产方面。

 

发展数字化农业,为农业农村发展注入创新:“一带一路”倡议将为农业数字化创新,抑或利用信息通讯技术提高农业生产效率和效益提供更多的可能性。农业数字化改造蕴含许多重大机遇,可以提升“一带一路”倡议中的基础设施投资惠及贫困人群和促进农村发展的成效。通过为偏远地区提供更好的信息获得渠道,数字化农业可以减少或打破造成贫穷的种种局限。数字化农业将提供与动植物疫病、生产技术和质量标准有关的信息和专家建议,以及获得金融服务和培训的渠道。农民能够立即将前沿技术应用于实践,在农业技术发展道路上大步向前迈进。然而,必须在项目制定的一开始就把依靠农业数字化推动更包容、惠及贫穷人群的发展目标纳入到规划中来。

 

加强跨境动植物疾病控制:“一带一路”倡议会实现国际农产品贸易的增长,跨境动植物疾病扩散的风险也会随之提升。粮农组织在该领域已经积累了丰富的国际经验,确保贸易的增长以安全的方式进行,不会对处于弱势的农民构成威胁,也不会为消费者带来健康隐患。在这一领域,中国农业部与粮农组织是重要的伙伴,保持了多年的密切合作。

 

保护生物多样性,提高对气候变化的适应力:很多参与到“一带一路”倡议中的国家,尤其是东南亚与中亚国家,极其容易受到气候变化的影响。具体风险包括海平面上升,海上丝绸之路沿线国家遭遇洪水,以及中东亚国家发生旱灾、沙漠化,以及极端天气活动。

 

贫困人口往往最容易受到气候变化的影响。由于生活在边缘地带,缺乏足够的资源适应气候变化,他们的生计摇摇欲坠,很容易遭受破坏。有消除全球饥饿与贫穷的努力都必须将气候变化对贫困人口的影响纳入考虑,寻找帮助贫困人口抵御气候变化的手段。

 

气候变化与粮农组织和全球海洋委员会的合作项目所倡导的其他行动领域是相辅相成的。当衡量价值链发展的机遇时,必须把气候变化纳入考虑,信息通讯技术与数字化农业的创新应用可用来提高对气候变化的适应力,气候变化对疾病传播的影响也已经得到充分认识。(编辑:杨海霞)