文I罗建波 中央党校国际战略研究院中国外交研究室主任 教授
一位坦桑尼亚的学者曾言，当前非洲面临两扇“机会之窗”（window of opportunity），一扇是不断推进的非洲一体化，一扇是不断加强与东方国家的联系，其中重要的就是中国。赞比亚籍经济学家丹比萨·莫约，曾在她那本畅销全球的著作《援助的死亡》中，尖锐批评西方对非发展援助，却对中非合作给予了高度评价。她在书中说，中国是非洲的朋友。非洲朋友对中非合作的积极评价，是对中国对非理念和政策的最好肯定。（编辑：杨海霞）
The Values of Justice and Shared Interest: Working Together to Promote China-Africa Relations
By Luo Jianbo, Professor and Director at the Institute for International Strategic Studies, Party School of the Central Committee of the CPC; Translated by Xu Qinduo
What is the meaning of “Yi” in Chinese? It refers to fairness, justice, righteousness, and morality. It was fully embodied in China’s support for the independence movement of African countries, and is also reflected in China’s effort today to promote Sino-Africa cooperation for mutual benefit and win-win outcome, and to speak out for the legitimate positions of African countries in the international community.
A reminder of the historic ties of friendship between China and Africa is TAZARA. Back in the 1960s and 1970s, China helped built the Tanzania-Zambia Railroad in support of the national independence movements in Southern Africa. The railway stretches 1860 kilometers. Sixty-Five Chinese technicians and experts sacrificed their lives for the project. China was struggling with poverty back then, but still tried its best to support the just cause of African countries. Julius Nyerere, the first president of the new state of Tanzania, visited China 13 times. He kept telling his African fellows that they should not only devote themselves to the Pan-Africanism movement, but also focus on the cooperation with China. He said more than once that China was a trustworthy friend.
Talking about the China-Africa cooperation today, what comes to mind is the Mombasa–Nairobi “Madaraka Express”. The 485km gauge railway is the largest project in Kenya since its national independence. It is also the first newly-built railroad in the country in over 100 years. It replaces the more than 100-year-old "Lunatic Express” constructed during the British colonial rule, whose speed and transport capacity no longer satisfy today’s need. The Mombasa–Nairobi railway is part of a long-term plan to connect a vast network of rails from Kenya, through Uganda and Burundi, and up to South Sudan. This railway artery will further promote the economic development in East Africa. The line is constructed with the Chinese standard, Chinese technologies, Chinese equipment and Chinese management experiences. This will help improve the railway standard in Africa.
If TAZARA could be labeled as a road to national liberation, as it provided support to the independence movement of African countries, and inspired African people’s national spirit and confidence, the Mombasa–Nairobi railway, then, is a road to development and prosperity. It proves to the world that Africans can not only liberate themselves from the external constraints, but also build their motherland with their own hands. China shares its development experiences and entrepreneurship through the Mombasa-Nairobi railroad, just as it passed on its revolutionary experience and national spirit to African countries through TAZARA.
Over the past 100 years, China cooperated with Africa to break the colonial system of Western countries in order to win national independence and liberation, and to pursue the all-round national progress and a fairer global system. China has always attached great importance to the cooperation with African countries to promote common development for mutual benefit and win-win outcome. This is a reflection of the characteristics of China’s diplomacy. In this era when China and Africa are jointly pursuing development and revitalization, President Xi Jinping clearly points out that we should stick to “the principle of upholding justice while pursuing shared interests”, and comply with the concept of "sincerity, real results, affinity and good faith.”
What are the values of justice and shared interest?
In March 2013, Xi Jinping visited three countries in Africa on his first overseas trip as China’s head of state. In his speech delivered at the Julius Nyerere International Conference Center in Tanzania, Xi put forward the guidelines of “sincerity, real results, affinity and good faith” toward Africa. According to Xi, China will always treat its African friends sincerely; in conducting cooperation with Africa, China values real results; in strengthening friendship with Africa, China seeks to cultivate a relationship of affinity; in addressing problems in cooperation with Africa, China has always acted in good faith.
At the Central Conference on Work Relating to Foreign Affairs in November 2014, President Xi Jinxing fully elaborated the principle of upholding justice and pursuing shared interests. Xi emphasized that we should act in good faith, value friendship, and champion and uphold justice while dealing with the relations with Africa and other developing countries. In October 2017, Xi Jinxing pointed out in the report at 19th CPC National Congress that China will, guided by the principle of upholding justice while pursuing shared interests and the principle of sincerity, real results, affinity, and good faith, work to strengthen solidarity and cooperation with other developing countries.
Dealing with the relationship between justice (“Yi”) and interest (“Li”) is an important part of China’s traditional philosophy. Chinese traditional culture highly values the balance and combination of justice and interest, and even believes that justice should outweigh interest. Confucius once said, “a gentleman holds righteousness to be of highest importance.” Mencius said “I value life, and I also value rightness. But if I cannot keep both, I will sacrifice my life for rightness.” What is the meaning of “Yi” in Chinese? It refers to fairness, justice, righteousness, and morality. It was fully embodied in China’s support for the independence movement of African countries, and is also reflected in China’s effort today to promote Sino-Africa cooperation for mutual benefit and win-win cooperation, and to speak out for the legitimate positions of African countries in the international community.
Since we entered the 21st century, China has witnessed great economic and social development. Its comprehensive national strength and international influence are also improving rapidly. Some developing countries are asking, is China still a member of them and will China move forward hand in hand with them? By putting forward the values of justice and shared interest, China wants to make it clear for Africa and other developing countries that it will always stand firmly with them. Just as Xi Jinping points out during his visit to Africa, under the new situation, China-Africa relationship is of greater, instead of less importance, and the common interests have increased, instead of being decreased. China is expected to put more effort in developing its relations with Africa.
Developing countries constitute the basis of China’s overall diplomacy, and Africa is truly a major part forming this very basis of China’s diplomacy. African countries have offered huge diplomatic support to China. There are three things that we should never forget. First, it was the African countries that “carried” the New China into the United Nations. Second, African countries supported China after the 1989 political crisis in Beijing. Third, on Taiwan issue, most African nations firmly adhere to the one-China principle. History has showed that whenever China’s diplomacy was faced with difficulties, most of the African countries would stand firmly with China. That China upholds the values of justice and shared interest can be seen as an effort to tell the African countries that China highly values its relationship with Africa and will continue to cooperate will them.
China also wants to show the world that it is willing to take more responsibilities, and to promote fairness and justice in the international community in the new era. We are living in a world with deficit in peace, development and governance. The problems are particularly acute in developing countries, especially in Africa. China actively participates in global governance, in an effort to help the developing countries to realize economic growth and political stability, and to protect the rights they deserve in the international community. As the Chinese saying goes, “one should focus on self-improvement while living in poverty; and once become well-off, he should be concerned about the wellbeing of the rest.” Chinese people and the Chinese Communist Party have always cared deeply about the wellbeing of other parts of the world. China is willing and able to make greater contribution to the global community, and to jointly promote world peace, development and prosperity with other countries.
The values of justice and shared interest also provide a new model of international relationship for the global community. Some Westerners often have doubts about the 60 years of China-Africa cooperation. They’ve been wondering why China could win the diplomatic support of African countries with relatively low investment. There were many reasons behind that, but one of the most important factors was that China treats Africa in an equal manner following the principle of mutual respect, which African countries value the most as they were once colonized and are still marginalized in the international system. Different from traditional big powers, China’s aid to Africa is never attached with political strings. China never boasts itself as the “mentor” of African countries, and instead, it emphasizes equal cooperation and learning from each other.
How to put the values into practice?
In order to put the values of justice and shared interest into practice, China should continue to focus on poverty alleviation and the development of African countries. At the 2015 Johannesburg Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), China pledged to invest $60 billion in three years to promote industrialization and agricultural modernization in Africa. Today’s Ethiopia witnesses the win-win cooperation between China and Africa. Its first expressway, first modern light railway, first electric railway, first wind power plant, first modern industrial park, first modern vocational school and the first academy of governance (Federal Meles Zenawi Leadership Academy), were all invested, constructed or assisted by China. With its cooperation with China, Ethiopia’s growth rate has always been among the top of the world since 2004. Ethiopia does not have much resource, but Chinese people are cooperating with them in their own way that benefits both. This is a good response to the accusations of neocolonialism by Western countries.
China should continue to actively help African countries improving their governance capacity. At present, most African countries are faced with three tough problems: poor infrastructure, fund shortage, and lack of talents. They not only need China’s increasing investment and aid, but also want to learn from China’s experience of governance and development. Now, under the framework of FOCAC, tens of thousands of Africans come to China to attend workshops and training programs. According to my observation, they’ve not only learned about the knowledge and techniques, but more importantly, they’ve been inspired by the entrepreneurship and the spirit of working in earnest of Chinese people. This will encourage them to devote themselves to the cause of developing Africa with confidence, courage, and passion.
China should continue to help African countries realizing peace and stability. Firstly, China should adhere to the principle of “African Solutions to African problems”, and support the capacity building of African countries and the African Union to maintain peace and stability. China should continue to promote the implementation of the “Initiative on China-Africa Cooperative Partnership for Peace and Security, and continue to support the building and operation of the African Standby Force and the African Capacity for the Immediate Response to Crisis. Secondly, China needs to support the United Nations to make greater contribution for African peace and security. China has always been a firm supporter and active participator of the UN’s peacekeeping mechanism. It is the second largest contributor to United Nations peacekeeping costs, and it contributes more troops to UN peacekeeping missions than any other permanent members of the UN Security Council. In 2015, China established a $1 billion China-UN “peace and development fund, and helped build a UN standby peacekeeping force of 8,000 troops. Currently, there are more than 2,400 Chinese peacekeepers deployed in seven UN peacekeeping missions across the African continent.
China should continue to speak out actively on the global stage for African countries. China has always stuck to the principle that all countries, big or small, shall be equal and respect one another. China opposes the practice of the big oppressing the small and the strong bullying the weak. China advocates the democratization of international relations, and proposes to resolve conflicts through talks. China rejects hegemonism and power politics, and strongly opposes the interference of other countries’ internal affairs on the excuse of humanitarianism. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, China stands firmly with other developing countries to jointly safeguard our rights and interests, and support greater representation and say of the developing countries in international affairs. On Sept. 28, 2015, President Xi Jinping promised at the 70th session of the United Nations General Assembly that China will always vote for developing countries in the United Nations.
China should continue its efforts in making the international order develop in a more just and equitable direction. Firstly, China should promote the reform of the existing international mechanisms, such as the World Bank and IMF, and support a greater voice for emerging economies and developing countries in global governance. Secondly, China is committed to establishing some new multilateral institutions with other developing countries based on the principle of wide consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits. For example, China is pushing forward the BRIC cooperation mechanism. At the 2017 BRICS Summit held in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China proposed to give room to accommodate emerging markets and developing countries under a new approach christened “BRICS plus.” In Sept. 2018, China will host the FOCAC Summit in Beijing to deepen its cooperation with African countries.
Progress has been made in the pragmatic cooperation between China and Africa. With the deepening partnership with China, many African countries are pursuing development in a more confident, active and independent manner, and is getting involved in the global system in a more independent way.
In 2015, Africa’s independent research network “Afrobarometer” conducted a survey with 540,000 Africans in 36 African nations, and found out that 2/3 of the respondents held a positive attitude towards China, and believed that Sino-Africa cooperation had promoted the development of the continent. Many respondents had more favorable views on China than America and European countries. When asked about their preferred development model, many picked China model, which ranks the second after the American model, and before the European model. A 2015 Pew Research Center study on China’s image among 36 countries across the world showed that African countries held the most favorable view of China.
A Tanzanian scholar once said that Africa today is faced with two windows of opportunity – one is the African integration, the other is the relationship with the East, especially China. Zambian economist Dambisa Moyo, in her bestseller “Dead Aid,” criticizes the Western aid interventions in Africa, while speaks highly of China-Africa cooperation. She wrote in that book that China was a friend of Africa. These positive feedbacks from African people are recognition of China’s foreign policy and concept towards Africa.