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正确义利观:推动中非携手前行

文/ 罗建波

何为“义”?义,就是公平、公正、正义、道义。中国在历史上帮助非洲国家实现民族独立,是大义;今天,中国携手非洲国家实现互利共赢共同发展,在国际上为非洲国家仗义执言,也是大义。


文I罗建波   中央党校国际战略研究院中国外交研究室主任 教授

从两条铁路说起

何为正确义利观?

如何践行正确义利观?



从两条铁路说起

谈到中非历史友谊,人们首先想到的是坦赞铁路。在20世纪60、70年代,中国为支持南部非洲国家的民族独立斗争,帮助坦赞两国修建了长达1860公里的坦赞铁路,65名中国技术人员和专家为此牺牲了宝贵生命。当时中国自己也非常贫穷,但为了非洲国家的正义事业,毅然向非洲国家提供了力所能及的援助。坦桑尼亚开国元首尼雷尔一生先后13次到访中国,他一次又一次告诉他的同胞,非洲不只是要实现泛非主义的大联合,而且还要注重与东方中国的合作。他不只一次地说过,中国是值得信赖的。

谈及当前的中非合作,人们自然会想到蒙内铁路。这条长达485公里的新铁路,是肯尼亚独立以来的最大工程,也是肯尼亚近百年来新建的第一条铁路。在过去一百多年里,肯尼亚仅有一条英国人当年建造的“米轨”铁路,其速度和运力早已跟不上实际需要。蒙内铁路着眼于整个东非铁路网建设,今后将连接乌干达、卢旺达、布隆迪、南苏丹等东非国家,成为推动东非发展一条“铁路大动脉”。同时,蒙内铁路全部采用中国标准、中国技术、中国装备、中国管理经验,必将为推升非洲铁路标准起到重要作用。

如果说当年的坦赞铁路,是一条通往民族解放之路,它极大支援了南部非洲国家的民族独立斗争,极大激发了非洲的民族精神和民族自信心。那么,今天的蒙内铁路则是一条通往发展之路。它向世界证明了,非洲人不仅能够用自己的手打破外部枷锁,也能够用自己的手建设好自己的国家。如果说,当年坦赞铁路承载的是革命经验、民族精神的平行传递;今天蒙内铁路承载的则是发展经验、创业精神的平行传递。

20世纪百余年来,中国与非洲通过团结合作,先是打碎了西方殖民体系获得了民族独立和解放,进而追求国家的全面发展和复兴并推动国际体系更为公平公正的发展。长期以来,中国一直注重加强同非洲国家的团结合作,注重实现与它们的互利共赢共同发展,集中体现了中国外交的鲜明特色和道义精神。在今天中非携手追求发展与复兴之时,习近平主席更是明确提出要坚持正确义利观和真实亲诚理念加强同非洲和发展中国家团结合作。

何为正确义利观?

2013年3月,习近平在就任国家主席之后的首次出访便选择了非洲,足见中国对非洲国家的高度重视。在坦桑尼亚的尼雷尔国际会议中心,习近平提出并阐述了“真实亲诚”的对非合作理念。他指出,对待非洲朋友我们讲一个“真”字,开展对非合作我们讲一个“实”字,加强中非友好我们讲一个“亲”字,解决合作中的问题我们讲一个“诚”字。

2014年11月,习近平在中央外事工作会议上明确提出并全面地阐述了正确义利观。他强调,对非洲和发展中国家,要做到义利兼顾,讲信义、重情义、扬正义、树道义。2017年10月,党的十九大报告指出:要秉持正确义利观和真实亲诚理念加强同发展中国家团结合作。

正确处理义和利的关系,是中国传统文化思维的重要方面。中国传统文化一直主张义利兼顾、义利统一,甚至先义后利、重义轻利。孔子说,“君子义以为上”;孟子有,“生亦我所欲也,义亦我所欲也;二者不可得兼,舍生而取义者也”。何为“义”?义,就是公平、公正、正义、道义。中国在历史上帮助非洲国家实现民族独立,是大义;今天,中国携手非洲国家实现互利共赢共同发展,在国际上为非洲国家仗义执言,也是大义。

进入21世纪以来,中国经济社会都得到了极大的发展,综合国力得到极大提高,世界影响力也在快速增长。一些发展中国家在问,一个日益发展的中国是否还是它们的一员,是否还与它们携手并进?中国明确提出正确义利观,就是旨在向非洲和发展中国家说明,中国将永远与发展中国家站在一起。正如习近平访非时指出,新形势下中非关系的重要性不是降低了而是提高了,双方共同利益不是减少了而是增多了,中方发展对非关系的力度不会削弱、只会加强。

长期以来,中国一直视发展中国家为自身外交战略的基础,非洲更是这个基础中的“基础”。历史上,非洲国家曾给中国以巨大的外交支持,有三件事我们不能忘:一是非洲国家把中国抬进联合国,二是1989年北京政治风波后非洲国家对中国的大力支持,三是在台湾问题上的一贯支持。历史一再显示,每当中国外交遇到困难之时,绝大多数非洲国家总是坚定地与中国站在一起。中国对非洲国家倡导和践行正确义利观,就是要向它们表明,中国将一如既往地重视非洲国家,一如既往地重视同它们的团结合作。

中国也要借此向世界表明,新时代中国外交有新的国际责任、新的道义精神。当今世界面临发展赤字、和平赤字、治理赤字,这些全球性问题主要集中在发展中国家,尤其是非洲国家。中国积极参与全球治理,就是以发展中国家为全球治理的重点区域,帮助它们实现经济发展和政治稳定,帮助它们在国际上更好维护应有权益。“穷则独善其身,达则兼济天下”。中国人和中国共产党始终心怀天下,有意愿也有能力为世界做出更大贡献,携手各国共同推动世界的和平、发展与繁荣。

倡导和践行正确义利观,还能为国际社会提供了一种新型国际关系范式。对于六十年的中非友好合作,一些西方人士经常不理解,他们在问:为何中国能以相对较少的投入而赢得非洲国家的外交支持?原因自然很多,但其中一个重要因素是中国始终能够与非洲国家相互尊重、平等相待,这是经受过西方殖民压迫且至今仍处于国际社会边缘的非洲国家所特别看重的。与传统大国不同,中国对非援助从不附加任何政治条件,中国在对非合作中从不以“导师爷”自居,而是强调平等合作、相互学习。


如何践行正确义利观?

践行正确义利观,需要着力推动非洲国家的减贫与发展。在2015年12月召开的中非合作论坛约翰内斯堡峰会上,中国宣布在三年内向非洲国家提供600亿美元,推动非洲的工业化和农业现代化。今天的埃塞俄比亚,见证着中非合作的魅力,它的第一条高速公路,第一条城市轻轨,第一条电气化铁路,第一座风力发电厂,第一座现代化的工业园,第一所现代化的职业学校,第一所执政党的党校,都是中国人投资、承建,或者援建的。得益于与中国的合作,埃塞经济增长率自2004年以来一直位居世界前列。埃塞,其实没有多少资源,但中国人却在用自己的方式与埃塞实现互利共赢共同发展,这是对西方指责中国所谓“新殖民主义”的最好回应。

践行正确义利观,需要积极推动非洲国家的治理能力建设。当前非洲国家面临三大发展难题:基础设施滞后、资金短缺、人才不足。非洲国家“向东看”,就不只是看重中国不断增加的对外投资和援助,还希望学习和借鉴中国的治国理政与发展经验,希望中非携手提升非洲国家的治理能力。如今,在中非合作论坛框架下,每年都有上万名非洲朋友得以来华进行研修。据我的观察,他们的中国之行不仅有助于他们获得相关的知识和技能,或许更为重要的是,他们能够切身体会到中国发展的巨大成就和中国人迸发出的积极创业精神和实干精神,进而增加他们从事非洲发展的信心、勇气和激情。

践行正确义利观,需要注重帮助非洲国家实现和平与稳定。中国主要从两个层面推动非洲国家的安全治理:一是支持非洲国家“以非洲方式自主解决非洲问题”的努力,支持非洲国家、非盟致力于维和维稳能力建设。中国积极推动落实“中非和平安全合作伙伴倡议”,继续为非洲常备军、非洲危机快速反应部队等非洲集体安全机制建设提供力所能及的支持。二是推动联合国为非洲和平与安全做出更大贡献。中国一直是联合国维和机制的坚定支持者和参与者,是联合国维和行动的第二大出资国,也是联合国安理会5个常任理事国中派出维和人员最多的国家。中国在2015年宣布设立总额为10亿美元的中国—联合国和平与发展基金,承诺加入联合国维和能力待命机制并组建8000人维和待命部队。目前,中国有2400多名维和人员在7个非洲任务区执行联合国维和任务。

践行正确义利观,需要积极在国际舞台为非洲国家说话。中国一直坚持大小国家一律平等的原则,反对以大欺小、以强凌弱、以富压贫。一直坚持推进国际关系民主化,反对任何形式的霸权主义和强权政治。一直坚持主张通过对话谈判的方式解决有争议的问题,反对借人道主义为由干涉别国内政特别是颠覆他国政权的霸道行径。作为联合国安理会常任理事国,中国始终与发展中国家站在一起,维护发展中国家的权益,支持增加发展中国家特别是非洲国家在国际体系中的代表性和发言权。2015年9月28日,习近平主席在第七十届联合国大会上郑重承诺,“中国在联合国的一票永远属于发展中国家”。

践行正确义利观,还要积极推动国际秩序的变革、发展与完善。一是改革“存量”,即推动世界银行、IMF等重大国际机制的改革,注重提升新兴国家和发展中大国在全球治理体系中的话语权。二是提供“增量”,即注重与新兴大国、与发展中国家一道搭建新的以共商共建共享为特色的国际机制,丰富现有国际治理体系。中国不断夯实金砖国家合作机制,2017年厦门金砖峰会还开创了“金砖+”合作模式,搭建起新兴大国与其他发展中国家的合作新平台。

2018年9月,中国将在北京举行中非合作论坛峰会,继续深化拓展中非全方位互利合作。中国推动国际秩序变革与完善的一个基本诉求,是着眼发展中国家的发展和治理问题,携手各国推动全球治理体系更多更好关注全球发展问题,努力提升新兴大国和发展中国家在全球治理体系中的话语权,帮助发展中国家实现发展、稳定和复兴。

中非务实合作正在全面展开,成效正在逐步显现。借助于与中国不断深化的伙伴关系,许多非洲国家逐步建立了一种前所未有的新的自信、新的精神,开始以更加自主、更加积极的面貌追求自身发展,开始以更加独立、更加有利的方式融入世界体系。

2015年,非洲知名独立民调机构“非洲晴雨表”(Afrobarometer),对非洲36国5.4万民众进行访问,发现2/3的受访者对中国持正面评价,认为中非合作推动了非洲的发展。许多受调查者对中国的好感明显要好于他们对欧美国家的评价。在回答“哪种模式对本国影响最大”一问时,受调查者对中国模式给予了认可,仅排在美国之后位居第二,排在欧洲模式之前。同样是在2015年,美国知名独立民调机构皮尤中心曾经在全球36个国家对中国形象进行过调查,结果发现,非洲国家对中国形象的认同度最高。

一位坦桑尼亚的学者曾言,当前非洲面临两扇“机会之窗”(window of opportunity),一扇是不断推进的非洲一体化,一扇是不断加强与东方国家的联系,其中重要的就是中国。赞比亚籍经济学家丹比萨·莫约,曾在她那本畅销全球的著作《援助的死亡》中,尖锐批评西方对非发展援助,却对中非合作给予了高度评价。她在书中说,中国是非洲的朋友。非洲朋友对中非合作的积极评价,是对中国对非理念和政策的最好肯定。(编辑:杨海霞)


英文版:


The Values of Justice and Shared Interest: Working Together to Promote China-Africa Relations


By Luo Jianbo, Professor and Director at the Institute for International Strategic Studies, Party School of the Central Committee of the CPC; Translated by Xu Qinduo


What is the meaning of “Yi” in Chinese? It refers to fairness, justice, righteousness, and morality. It was fully embodied in China’s support for the independence movement of African countries, and is also reflected in China’s effort today to promote Sino-Africa cooperation for mutual benefit and win-win outcome, and to speak out for the legitimate positions of African countries in the international community.
    
Two Railroads
A reminder of the historic ties of friendship between China and Africa is TAZARA. Back in the 1960s and 1970s, China helped built the Tanzania-Zambia Railroad in support of the national independence movements in Southern Africa. The railway stretches 1860 kilometers. Sixty-Five Chinese technicians and experts sacrificed their lives for the project. China was struggling with poverty back then, but still tried its best to support the just cause of African countries. Julius Nyerere, the first president of the new state of Tanzania, visited China 13 times. He kept telling his African fellows that they should not only devote themselves to the Pan-Africanism movement, but also focus on the cooperation with China. He said more than once that China was a trustworthy friend.
Talking about the China-Africa cooperation today, what comes to mind is the Mombasa–Nairobi “Madaraka Express”. The 485km gauge railway is the largest project in Kenya since its national independence. It is also the first newly-built railroad in the country in over 100 years. It replaces the more than 100-year-old "Lunatic Express” constructed during the British colonial rule, whose speed and transport capacity no longer satisfy today’s need. The Mombasa–Nairobi railway is part of a long-term plan to connect a vast network of rails from Kenya, through Uganda and Burundi, and up to South Sudan. This railway artery will further promote the economic development in East Africa. The line is constructed with the Chinese standard, Chinese technologies, Chinese equipment and Chinese management experiences. This will help improve the railway standard in Africa.
If TAZARA could be labeled as a road to national liberation, as it provided support to the independence movement of African countries, and inspired African people’s national spirit and confidence, the Mombasa–Nairobi railway, then, is a road to development and prosperity. It proves to the world that Africans can not only liberate themselves from the external constraints, but also build their motherland with their own hands. China shares its development experiences and entrepreneurship through the Mombasa-Nairobi railroad, just as it passed on its revolutionary experience and national spirit to African countries through TAZARA.
Over the past 100 years, China cooperated with Africa to break the colonial system of Western countries in order to win national independence and liberation, and to pursue the all-round national progress and a fairer global system. China has always attached great importance to the cooperation with African countries to promote common development for mutual benefit and win-win outcome. This is a reflection of the characteristics of China’s diplomacy. In this era when China and Africa are jointly pursuing development and revitalization, President Xi Jinping clearly points out that we should stick to “the principle of upholding justice while pursuing shared interests”, and comply with the concept of "sincerity, real results, affinity and good faith.”

What are the values of justice and shared interest?
In March 2013, Xi Jinping visited three countries in Africa on his first overseas trip as China’s head of state. In his speech delivered at the Julius Nyerere International Conference Center in Tanzania, Xi put forward the guidelines of “sincerity, real results, affinity and good faith” toward Africa. According to Xi, China will always treat its African friends sincerely; in conducting cooperation with Africa, China values real results; in strengthening friendship with Africa, China seeks to cultivate a relationship of affinity; in addressing problems in cooperation with Africa, China has always acted in good faith.
At the Central Conference on Work Relating to Foreign Affairs in November 2014, President Xi Jinxing fully elaborated the principle of upholding justice and pursuing shared interests. Xi emphasized that we should act in good faith, value friendship, and champion and uphold justice while dealing with the relations with Africa and other developing countries. In October 2017, Xi Jinxing pointed out in the report at 19th CPC National Congress that China will, guided by the principle of upholding justice while pursuing shared interests and the principle of sincerity, real results, affinity, and good faith, work to strengthen solidarity and cooperation with other developing countries.
Dealing with the relationship between justice (“Yi”) and interest (“Li”) is an important part of China’s traditional philosophy. Chinese traditional culture highly values the balance and combination of justice and interest, and even believes that justice should outweigh interest. Confucius once said, “a gentleman holds righteousness to be of highest importance.” Mencius said “I value life, and I also value rightness. But if I cannot keep both, I will sacrifice my life for rightness.”  What is the meaning of “Yi” in Chinese? It refers to fairness, justice, righteousness, and morality. It was fully embodied in China’s support for the independence movement of African countries, and is also reflected in China’s effort today to promote Sino-Africa cooperation for mutual benefit and win-win cooperation, and to speak out for the legitimate positions of African countries in the international community.
Since we entered the 21st century, China has witnessed great economic and social development. Its comprehensive national strength and international influence are also improving rapidly. Some developing countries are asking, is China still a member of them and will China move forward hand in hand with them? By putting forward the values of justice and shared interest, China wants to make it clear for Africa and other developing countries that it will always stand firmly with them. Just as Xi Jinping points out during his visit to Africa, under the new situation, China-Africa relationship is of greater, instead of less importance, and the common interests have increased, instead of being decreased. China is expected to put more effort in developing its relations with Africa.
Developing countries constitute the basis of China’s overall diplomacy, and Africa is truly a major part forming this very basis of China’s diplomacy. African countries have offered huge diplomatic support to China. There are three things that we should never forget. First, it was the African countries that “carried” the New China into the United Nations. Second, African countries supported China after the 1989 political crisis in Beijing. Third, on Taiwan issue, most African nations firmly adhere to the one-China principle. History has showed that whenever China’s diplomacy was faced with difficulties, most of the African countries would stand firmly with China. That China upholds the values of justice and shared interest can be seen as an effort to tell the African countries that China highly values its relationship with Africa and will continue to cooperate will them.
China also wants to show the world that it is willing to take more responsibilities, and to promote fairness and justice in the international community in the new era. We are living in a world with deficit in peace, development and governance. The problems are particularly acute in developing countries, especially in Africa. China actively participates in global governance, in an effort to help the developing countries to realize economic growth and political stability, and to protect the rights they deserve in the international community. As the Chinese saying goes, “one should focus on self-improvement while living in poverty; and once become well-off, he should be concerned about the wellbeing of the rest.” Chinese people and the Chinese Communist Party have always cared deeply about the wellbeing of other parts of the world. China is willing and able to make greater contribution to the global community, and to jointly promote world peace, development and prosperity with other countries.
The values of justice and shared interest also provide a new model of international relationship for the global community. Some Westerners often have doubts about the 60 years of China-Africa cooperation. They’ve been wondering why China could win the diplomatic support of African countries with relatively low investment. There were many reasons behind that, but one of the most important factors was that China treats Africa in an equal manner following the principle of mutual respect, which African countries value the most as they were once colonized and are still marginalized in the international system. Different from traditional big powers, China’s aid to Africa is never attached with political strings. China never boasts itself as the “mentor” of African countries, and instead, it emphasizes equal cooperation and learning from each other.

How to put the values into practice?
In order to put the values of justice and shared interest into practice, China should continue to focus on poverty alleviation and the development of African countries. At the 2015 Johannesburg Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), China pledged to invest $60 billion in three years to promote industrialization and agricultural modernization in Africa. Today’s Ethiopia witnesses the win-win cooperation between China and Africa. Its first expressway, first modern light railway, first electric railway, first wind power plant, first modern industrial park, first modern vocational school and the first academy of governance (Federal Meles Zenawi Leadership Academy), were all invested, constructed or assisted by China. With its cooperation with China, Ethiopia’s growth rate has always been among the top of the world since 2004. Ethiopia does not have much resource, but Chinese people are cooperating with them in their own way that benefits both. This is a good response to the accusations of neocolonialism by Western countries.
China should continue to actively help African countries improving their governance capacity. At present, most African countries are faced with three tough problems: poor infrastructure, fund shortage, and lack of talents. They not only need China’s increasing investment and aid, but also want to learn from China’s experience of governance and development. Now, under the framework of FOCAC, tens of thousands of Africans come to China to attend workshops and training programs. According to my observation, they’ve not only learned about the knowledge and techniques, but more importantly, they’ve been inspired by the entrepreneurship and the spirit of working in earnest of Chinese people. This will encourage them to devote themselves to the cause of developing Africa with confidence, courage, and passion.
China should continue to help African countries realizing peace and stability. Firstly, China should adhere to the principle of “African Solutions to African problems”, and support the capacity building of African countries and the African Union to maintain peace and stability. China should continue to promote the implementation of the “Initiative on China-Africa Cooperative Partnership for Peace and Security, and continue to support the building and operation of the African Standby Force and the African Capacity for the Immediate Response to Crisis. Secondly, China needs to support the United Nations to make greater contribution for African peace and security. China has always been a firm supporter and active participator of the UN’s peacekeeping mechanism. It is the second largest contributor to United Nations peacekeeping costs, and it contributes more troops to UN peacekeeping missions than any other permanent members of the UN Security Council. In 2015, China established a $1 billion China-UN “peace and development fund, and helped build a UN standby peacekeeping force of 8,000 troops. Currently, there are more than 2,400 Chinese peacekeepers deployed in seven UN peacekeeping missions across the African continent.
China should continue to speak out actively on the global stage for African countries. China has always stuck to the principle that all countries, big or small, shall be equal and respect one another. China opposes the practice of the big oppressing the small and the strong bullying the weak. China advocates the democratization of international relations, and proposes to resolve conflicts through talks. China rejects hegemonism and power politics, and strongly opposes the interference of other countries’ internal affairs on the excuse of humanitarianism. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, China stands firmly with other developing countries to jointly safeguard our rights and interests, and support greater representation and say of the developing countries in international affairs. On Sept. 28, 2015, President Xi Jinping promised at the 70th session of the United Nations General Assembly that China will always vote for developing countries in the United Nations.
China should continue its efforts in making the international order develop in a more just and equitable direction. Firstly, China should promote the reform of the existing international mechanisms, such as the World Bank and IMF, and support a greater voice for emerging economies and developing countries in global governance. Secondly, China is committed to establishing some new multilateral institutions with other developing countries based on the principle of wide consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits. For example, China is pushing forward the BRIC cooperation mechanism. At the 2017 BRICS Summit held in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China proposed to give room to accommodate emerging markets and developing countries under a new approach christened “BRICS plus.” In Sept. 2018, China will host the FOCAC Summit in Beijing to deepen its cooperation with African countries.
Progress has been made in the pragmatic cooperation between China and Africa. With the deepening partnership with China, many African countries are pursuing development in a more confident, active and independent manner, and is getting involved in the global system in a more independent way.
In 2015, Africa’s independent research network “Afrobarometer” conducted a survey with 540,000 Africans in 36 African nations, and found out that 2/3 of the respondents held a positive attitude towards China, and believed that Sino-Africa cooperation had promoted the development of the continent. Many respondents had more favorable views on China than America and European countries. When asked about their preferred development model, many picked China model, which ranks the second after the American model, and before the European model. A 2015 Pew Research Center study on China’s image among 36 countries across the world showed that African countries held the most favorable view of China.
A Tanzanian scholar once said that Africa today is faced with two windows of opportunity – one is the African integration, the other is the relationship with the East, especially China. Zambian economist Dambisa Moyo, in her bestseller “Dead Aid,” criticizes the Western aid interventions in Africa, while speaks highly of China-Africa cooperation.  She wrote in that book that China was a friend of Africa. These positive feedbacks from African people are recognition of China’s foreign policy and concept towards Africa.