您做在的位置: 中国投资 > 封面故事 > 改革与转变 势在必行

改革与转变 势在必行

文/ 查尔斯·卡永加(H.E. Mr. Ambassador Charles Kayonga)

非洲已在现有规划、政策和优先事项、《2063年议程》,特别在核心项目方面有了相应的解决方案。不过,这些终须离开纸上谈兵付诸实践。这也是在卡加梅总统的领导下改革非洲大陆体制和转变思维模式势在必行的原因


文I查尔斯·卡永加(H.E. Mr. Ambassador Charles Kayonga)  卢旺达驻华大使    翻译I宋雪云鹤



从历史惨剧中走出

中非合作是经济发展的重要因素

区域一体化 非洲经济发展之路



从历史惨剧中走出

1994年4月,由卢旺达长期政治矛盾引起的种族灭绝夺走了一百多万图西族人的生命,留下的其他百万人饱受精神与贫困的折磨。在独立后的前30年中,卢旺达的领导人以种族灭绝的意识形态统治这个国家,孤立了国民中的图西族人,剥夺了他们包括生存权在内的基本人权。其余的胡图族和特瓦族的情况也并不乐观:文盲率和贫困率居高而医疗卫生水平极度低下。总的来说,在这三十年中,政府并未谋求自由与发展,反之,却建立了一个极度贫困落后分裂的文盲社会。因此,1994年发生的种族灭绝是独立后的领导人多年来由于执政方针的错误导致的结果,也是不可避免的恶果。

对图西族的种族灭绝是一场人间惨剧。超过一百万图西人丧生,更多的图西族人饱受精神创伤。种族灭绝的劫后余生者依旧绝望:男人、妇女或孤儿,他们中的有些人被迫回到由未成年兄弟姐妹组成的家中。贫穷问题愈发严峻。在屠杀图西人后,种族灭绝政府决定将所有人赶出这个国家,作为掩护逃窜军队的策略,并企图将难民作为未来征召新兵的对象,用以再次在卢旺达挑起分裂战争。他们还掏空国库,带着少得可怜的外汇出逃。这些都对人民产生了深远的负面影响。参与屠杀的刽子手们也是个负担,众多的人数超出了监狱的负荷。更惨无人道的是,他们为了消灭证据竟继续杀戮种族灭绝的幸存者。总之,这个国家陷入了可悲可叹的境地,国际舆论都把它看作一个破败的国家。

今天,在停止对图西族的种族灭绝24年后,卢旺达奇迹般地好转了。根据美国盖洛普公司发布的《2015年全球法律与秩序报告》,卢旺达政局稳定,在夜间独行是否感到安全这一指标上,名列非洲排名第一,全球排名第五。安全不仅是为公民和居民提供人身安全的保障,且与医疗卫生条件相关。在今天,传染病在卢旺达已销声匿迹,低龄儿童和产妇死亡率也保持较低数据。由于良好的政府管理和包容的经济发展战略,贫困率一直在下降。卢旺达政府以对腐败的零容忍态度和高效率著称,在《2015年全球竞争力报告》中,卢旺达政府中被评为非洲最高效的政府。根据《2015年人类发展报告》,卢旺达被评为自1990年以来,在人类发展方面全球提升最显著的国家。

中非合作是经济发展的重要因素

中非合作已是非洲大陆许多国家经济发展的重要因素,也是卢旺达经济进步的重要因素。中国与卢旺达的关系可以追溯到1971年两国正式确立外交关系。1995年,随着国家的解放和停止种族灭绝的运动,两国关系得到了恢复,卡加梅总统对中国进行了一次正式访问。总统对中国很熟悉,在邓小平领导下的改革开放之后,他敏锐地观察到中国的发展和进步。访问期间,他见到了时任主席江泽民。这也是两国之间与日俱增的动态关系的开端。自2000年以来,两国的双边合作关系一直以中非合作论坛(FOCAC)框架为指导,进行了涵盖政治、经济、社会发展、人文交流、和平安全、国际合作的全方位合作。

政治层面的合作是中国与卢旺达的主要交流领域之一。政治交流以两国共同历史经验和对未来的同样愿景为基础。这两个国家都曾为外国侵略,经广大人民的努力得以解放。两国均由革命性的政治制度所引导,这一制度以自由为原则,尊重国家人民和全人类的权利。中国共产党和卢旺达爱国阵线同为从事解放运动的政党,致力于国家治理和发展。此时国家治理作为一场如火如荼的战斗,不仅是为击败反动或种族灭绝势力,也是为了将自己的人民从贫困和落后的困境中解放出来。中国和卢旺达将继续通过在行政、立法、政党层面进行高层互访的方式,在建立互信和战略定位的同时,寻求相互学习。

中国对卢旺达的经济支持为种族灭绝后重建和恢复带来了一个可喜的机会,也是今后经济独立的重要支柱。中国的经济和技术援助已经投入诸多领域,尤其是农业、卫生和教育领域。中国的技术支持沿用至本国的农业研究中心后,大大提高了当地研究和发展的能力。在专家层面的相互交流中,技术专家对农业机构进行了互访,共享农耕方法和其他技能。自2000年以来,两国间的投资和贸易也有所增长。对教育的支持包括援建职业学校,为在中国学习的卢旺达学生提供奖学金。迄今为止,在贸易便利化问题上,中国还提供了覆盖多条目的免税条款,尽管卢旺达尚未利用这一出口良机。中国还鼓励游客到卢旺达旅游,将卢旺达列为中国公民最优选的旅游目的地之一。这也促进了中国前往卢旺达旅游经商人数的增长。

中国走向全球的政策为卢旺达产业升级提供了又一机遇。中国的许多行业都在寻找国际新兴市场,而卢旺达将自己定位为获得最大受益者。此外,在2017年3月保罗·卡加梅总统访问北京期间,他与习近平主席进行会晤,两人一致决定进一步深化两国之间的合作关系,习近平主席承诺将鼓励中国投资者到卢旺达做生意。从那时起,大量投资者积极联络卢旺达发展局,而且这一趋势逐渐增强。

区域一体化 非洲经济发展之路

卢旺达将以促进商贸便利化为目的,继续推进改革。最新排名显示卢旺达在全球商业注册最便利的国家中名列第二。例如,在新一轮的改革中,政府将开始发行电子地契,并同时提供土地占用许可证和不动产所有权证书。这项新措施和现有的激励措施将进一步促进投资者在卢旺达开展商业活动。

区域一体化发展是确保卢旺达和整个非洲大陆经济独立的另一因素。卢旺达是所有重要地区和国际经贸协议的成员国。换句话说,东非共同体仍然是世界上增长最快的地区之一,在过去十年中平均保持5-6%年增长率,共计1000亿美元的GDP总量,超过1.5亿人口总量。卢旺达也是东南非共同市场(COMESA)、大湖国家经济共同体(CEPGL)、英联邦、非盟(AU)的成员国。正在推行的区域规划囊括了政策和基础设施两方面,着眼于减少贸易壁垒、打破发展瓶颈、加深区域一体化程度。基础设施项目包括东非标准轨距铁路,它将通过乌干达将肯尼亚的蒙巴萨和卢旺达的基加利连接起来,并向刚果民主共和国和布隆迪推近。东非中央走廊铁路项目计划将达累斯萨拉姆、基加利、布隆迪连接起来。除了铁路之外,地区国家间的石油管道和电网线路也将串联起来,以确保电力、工业产品的充分供应。

非洲大陆上没有任何一个国家或地区能在没有非洲经济一体化的情况下实现经济独立。在2018年1月卢旺达总统保罗·卡加梅当选为非盟轮值主席后发表的接受提名讲话中强调了这一点。尽管非洲一体化仍是一项艰巨的挑战,但非洲已在现有规划、政策和优先事项、《2063年议程》,特别在核心项目方面有了相应的解决方案。不过,这些终须离开纸上谈兵付诸实践。这也是在卡加梅总统的领导下改革非洲大陆体制和转变思维模式势在必行的原因。首先,卡加梅总统提议在2018年年底前,完成非洲内部单一航空运输项目、实现非洲大陆内人口自由流动,建成非洲大陆自由贸易区。他也主张将非洲数码市场一体化,并将其视为经济一体化的促进者。据卡加梅说,一旦实施了这些项目,将从内部加强非洲的财富建设。实施非盟规划和优先事项的主要障碍之一是缺乏行之有效的途径。中非合作为实施规划提供了必要的途径和方式。习近平主席承诺的十项合作计划将被视为非盟的核心项目。因此,在这里资金将不成问题,问题是按项目优先级采取行动。我们已然觉察到,一切已然准备就绪,一旦完成,非洲将迎来黑暗隧道尽头的耀眼曙光。(编辑:张梅)


英文版:

Economic Independence in Rwanda and the Role of China-Africa Cooperation



By H.E. Mr. Charles Kayonga, Ambassador of the Republic of Rwanda to China


I

n April 1994, Rwanda’s long-term political contradiction resulted in the genocide that claimed the lives of more than one million Tutsis leaving millions others traumatized and poverty stricken. In the preceding thirty years of independence, the leaders in Rwanda governed the country based on a genocide ideology which alienated one section of the population, the Tutsi denying them rights including often the right to life. The other component of the population, the Hutu and Twa did not fare better. Illiteracy and poverty levels were high and health indicators were very poor. Overall, in the three decades, instead of freedom and development, the government succeeded in bringing up a divided and illiterate society with high levels of poverty and underdevelopment. The genocide that occurred in 1994 therefore, was inevitable and a climax of many years of misdirected policies by post-independence leaders.
The genocide against the Tutsi was a catastrophe. More than a million Tutsi lives were lost and more others were traumatized. Survivors of genocide remained hopeless, men, women or orphans some of who were forced to head homes also made up of minor siblings. Poverty which was already a problem became worse. The genocide government after killing Tutsi, decided to herd the entire population out of the country, as a strategy to give the fleeing military cover, but also to use the refugees as a pool of recruits for future incursions and to wedge war once again in Rwanda. They also emptied national coffers and fled with the little foreign currency that remained. The effects on the people were far-reaching. The killers were also a burden. They were too many and prisons could not hold all of them. Moreover, they continued to kill survivors of genocide in effort to eliminate evidence. In all, the country was in a sorry state and most opinion was that it was a failed State.
Today, 24 years after stopping the genocide against the Tutsi, Rwanda has made a miraculous turn around. It is politically stable and has been ranked as first in Africa and fifth globally where people feel safe walking alone at night according to 2015 Gallup Global Law and Order Report. Safety is not only ensured by providing physical security to citizens and residents but it is also about access to health services. Today, epidemics are unheard of in Rwanda and incidence of deaths among young children or women giving births are kept at low rates. Poverty levels are declining as a result of good governance practices and inclusive economic development strategies. The government of Rwanda is highly regarded for its zero-tolerance for corruption and efficiency having been named Africa’s most efficient government by the Global Competitiveness Report of 2015. According to the Human Development Report 2015, Rwanda was also ranked the most improved country globally in human development since 1990.
China-Africa Cooperation has been a major factor in the economic development in many countries on the continent of Africa and it has been a major factor in the economic progress of Rwanda as well. The relations between China and Rwanda go as far back as 1971 when diplomatic relations were formalized. The relations were renewed in 1995, when following the liberation of the country and the campaign to stop the genocide, H.E President Kagame made an official visit to China. The President was familiar with China and had followed keenly its evolution and progress following the reforms and opening up under Deng Xiaoping. During the visit, he met with then President Zhang Zenmin. This was the beginning of a dynamic relationship that has grown from strength to strength. Since the year 2000, cooperation between the two sides has been guided by the framework of the Forum of China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) and encompasses the entire range including the political, economic, social development, people to people cooperation, peace and security and international cooperation.
Political level cooperation is one of the major areas of exchange between China and Rwanda. Political exchange is based on shared historical experiences and common vision for the future. The two countries were occupied by foreign forces and were liberated by popular people. They are led by revolutionary political systems that are founded on principles of freedom and rights for their people and the entire mankind. The Communist Party of China and the Rwanda Patriotic Front are both liberation movements and they pursue governance and development as a liberation effort. Governance is conducted as an ongoing campaign this time not only to defeat the reactionary or genocide forces, but also to free their people from poverty and underdevelopment. China and Rwanda continue to promote cooperation on the political level through exchange of high level visits whether executive, legislative or at Party level and seek to learn from one another while building mutual trust and strategic orientation.
China’s economic support to Rwanda was a welcome opportunity in the post genocide reconstruction and recovery and remains an important pillar for economic independence going forward. Chinese economic and technical assistance has been invested in many areas, specifically in agriculture, health and education. Support has been extended to the country’s Agriculture Research Center greatly enhancing the local capacity for research and development in the field. There is also exchange at expert level where technical experts have made reciprocal visits to agriculture institutions sharing knowledge on agriculture methods and other skills. Investment and trade between the two countries has also grown since 2000. Support to education has involved assistance in building schools including vocational schools as well as providing scholarships to Rwandan students to study in China. Regarding trade facilitation, China has so far provided duty free arrangements covering many tariff lines although the country is yet to exploit this export opportunity. China has also encouraged tourist to visit Rwanda by listing the country among the most preferred destinations to be visited by Chinese citizens. This has led to increase of Chinese heading to Rwanda for tourism and business as well.
The Chinese policy of going global provides another opportunity for Rwanda to advance her industrial policy. Many industries in China seek to migrate to emerging markets and Rwanda is positioning herself to get a lion’s share. Moreover, during the March 2017 visit to Beijing by H.E Paul Kagame and his meeting with President Xi Jinping, both leaders resolved to further deepen cooperation between the two countries with Xi Jinping promising to encourage Chinese investors to take business to Rwanda. Since then, a number of investors have initiated contacts with the Rwanda Development Board and the process is progressive.
The country has continued its reforms in doing business with aim of making it easier. The latest ranking put Rwanda at second world-wide in ease of business registration. For example in the new reforms, government will begin issuing electronic land titles and also offer simultaneously the occupational permits and freehold titles. This is a new measure that coupled with the existing incentives will likely induce investors seeking to do business in Rwanda.
Regional integration developments are additional factors that will ensure economic independence for Rwanda and for the whole continent of Africa. Rwanda is a member of all the key regional and international economic and trade arrangements namely: the East African Community which remains one of the fastest growing regions in the world with the registered average growth of 5-6% annually for the past decade, total GDP of $100 billion and a population of more than 150 million. Rwanda also belongs to the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL), the Commonwealth and the African Union (AU). Regional projects both policy and infrastructures are being initiated with view to reduce trade barriers, unlock bottle necks and deepen integration. Infrastructure projects include the East African Standard Gauge Railway which will link Mombasa in Kenya and Kigali, Rwanda through Uganda and also progress to the Democratic Republic of Congo and Burundi. The central corridor railway is planned to connect Dar-Es-Salaam to Kigali and Burundi. Apart from railways there are also oil pipelines and electricity grid-lines that will connect the regional countries ensuring sufficient supply of electricity and industrial goods.
No single country or region on the continent of Africa, can achieve economic independence without continental economic integration. This was underscored by H.E Paul Kagame, of Rwanda in January 2018 while delivering acceptance remarks following his election as the rotating Chairperson of the African Union. While integration remains a challenge, however, Africa has solutions in existing programs, policies and priorities including Agenda 2063, notably the flagship projects. But these must leave paper and be put to practice. That is why there is a drive for mindset change and reform of the continental institutions also being led by President Kagame. To begin with, the President of Rwanda proposes implementation of the single air transport project, the free movement of people on the continent and the continental free trade area projects before the end of 2018. He is also advocating for integration of the African digital market which he sees as a facilitator of economic integration. Once implemented, according to Kagame, these projects would enhance building Africa’s wealth from within. One of the major obstacles to implementation of the AU programs and priorities is lack of means. China-African Cooperation offers the ways and means that are necessary to implement the projects. The ten cooperation plans pledged by H.E Xi Jinping were conceived with the AU flagship projects in mind. Money is not a problem here therefore. The problem has been action beginning with project prioritization. There is a sense that this is getting in order and once done, Africa will begin to see the light at the end of the tunnel.