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埃塞俄比亚专家梅拉库:从“我的利益”到“我们的利益”

埃塞俄比亚专家梅拉库:从“我的利益”到“我们的利益”


文 | 梅拉库·穆鲁阿勒姆(Melaku Mulualem K) 埃塞俄比亚外交关系战略研究所外交政策分析部主任       

翻译 | 王晓波    

编辑 | 杨海霞      

设计 | 姜灵枝   

制作 | 黄硕存 


导读:在实现构建人类命运共同体的过程中无疑会遇到各种挑战。其中一些挑战需要在观念上做出改变,比如,“我的利益”切换成“我们的利益”。

● 谁将获益?

非洲与共享未来

共享命运与共担责任

人类命运共同体与全球化

多边主义是构建人类命运共同体的路径

实施建议

挑战


今年是中国实行改革开放政策的第四十年,这一政策给中国和世界都带来了许多益处。进入21世纪后,习近平主席又提出了两个新的伟大的想法,它们将深刻地改变国际社会的结构。这两个想法就是一带一路倡议和人类命运共同体,它们之间并不矛盾,反而可以起到互相促进和强化的作用。中国的这些提议能够尽可能地缩短世界上富人和穷人的差距。

人类命运共同体是一个很大的概念,它可以将国际社会的重大关切都归入其中,包括世界和平与安全、消除贫困和饥饿、全球可持续和包容发展、提高识字率、全球公共资源的合理分配、公平与正义、良好的治理结构、法律与秩序、人类健康和尊严、性别平等、不损害子孙后代的利益等议题。

人类命运共同体不可能靠单方面的力量构建,它需要各国政府与区域和国际组织间建立合作伙伴关系,同时它的成功也必将惠及全世界的人民。它对所有的意识形态、文明和宗教都持包容的态度。它也是大家共同努力解决全球问题的最佳途径之一,尤其对非洲和其他最不发达国家而言,习近平主席的这一崇高想法将使他们收获很大的益处。

虽然一带一路倡议和人类命运共同体的想法是中国提出来的,但它们都是属于世界的。2018年7月25日,在南非约翰内斯堡召开的金砖国家领导人峰会上,习近平主席在发言中再次强调了共享繁荣对世界各国人民的重要性。

谁将获益?

现在世界上共有约73亿人口,人类命运共同体指的就是所有这些人的命运。这一数字既显示了要落实习近平主席这一崇高理念所面临的挑战,也表明了各国政府和其他利益相关方必须为改善世界人民的生活通力合作。

中国现在虽已是世界第二大经济体,而且这些年来中国政府已经帮助数以百万计的人实现了脱贫,但仍有数百万人还生活在贫困中,因此脱贫的任务仍很艰巨。而且现在贫富间的差距也很大。所以中国称自己是世界上最大的发展中国家并非自谦而是事实。人类命运共同体这一构想不仅对中国的穷人有益,对全世界的穷人也是有益的,但实现它不能只靠中国和一些支持这一提法的国家。

非洲与共享未来

非洲是人类的发源地,但同时它也是人类遭受奴隶贸易、殖民主义、冲突、战争、饥荒和移民等苦难最多的地方。时至今日,仍有许多非洲人在移民时葬身在地中海里。而且移民也给世界各国带去了涉及社会、文化和政治混乱的问题。构建人类命运共同体的成功不仅有助于解决这些全球问题,还能让世界成为一个繁荣安全的星球,全人类都能在这里休养生息。

联合国已经吸纳了习近平主席共享未来的理念。2017年3月17日,联合国安全理事会通过了第2344号决议,决定将联合国援助团在阿富汗的时间再延长一年。该决议中引用了“共赢和构建人类命运共同体”的说法。同样地,在联合国社会发展委员会第五十五届会议上也提到了它,会议指出,“……要在非洲经济和社会发展的关键领域进一步采取行动,本着合作共赢的精神,创造共同的未来……”

共享命运与共担责任

通过多边主义和相互合作,政府和其他利益相关方才有可能改善人民的生活。为了实现这一目标,广泛的协商对于理解、规划和实施人类命运共同体的理念是非常重要的。但同时这一全球倡议并不会限制各国政府选择自己的发展道路。

王先生是中国的一位前外交官和知名学者,他认为人类命运共同体需要通过同时构建“利益共同体”和“责任共同体”才能得以实现。也就是说,从当前全球化和国际秩序中受益的国家应当肩负起实现人类命运共同体的重任。不过这并不意味着其他国家只享受发达国家创造的利益就可以了。世界上所有国家的政府都应当为人类更美好的未来发挥自己的作用。

人类命运共同体与全球化

人类命运共同体这一理念需要新型的全球治理体系,这样才能抓住世界发展的机遇。为了这一目的,经济全球化应当先于政治全球化,因为后者容易加剧不同文明间在意识形态方面的冲突。

全球化对我们日常生活的影响是巨大的。现阶段,发达国家从全球化中的受益远远多于最不发达国家。而共享未来的理念能够把蛋糕做大,使贫穷国家也能从中获利。

多边主义是构建人类命运共同体的路径

世界上的每个国家都有发展权,但对于全球面临的问题和挑战,一定要世界各国通力合作,因此,多边主义能够促成合作和伙伴关系,从而解决世界范围的问题。为此,国际社会应当摒弃单边主义、保护主义和一些大国反对全球化的行为。只有在公平的多边主义和全球化舞台上,最不发达国家才有机会从国际贸易、投资、旅游、金融及其他领域中获得益处。

当前,中国正在提倡人类命运共同体的理念,可是美国的特朗普政府却在大肆宣扬“美国优先”。这两个提法完全是南辕北辙,前者为的是“我们的未来”;而后者却只注重“我的未来”。

实施建议

人类命运共同体实际上指的是一群人(也就是全世界的人民)因为共同的利益和命运团结在一起。所谓人类共同的利益就是和平与安全、清洁的环境、公平正义、尊重人权、可持续发展等。

我们居住的地球为我们供应了丰富的资源,但同时也向我们提出了许多问题和挑战。这些问题需要各方的合作和共同努力。在我看来,如果我们能够解决十个基本问题,构建人类命运共同体的理想就一定能实现。这10个问题包括:健康、教育、和平人权和人类安全、工业发展、农业发展、科学与技术、民间交往、性别平行、良好的治理结构、环境。比如,世界各国的首脑和政府都应当就怎样在上述领域展开合作提出自己的计划和策略。类似地,国际组织和机构也要这么做。所有的计划和方案不能只针对地方或区域,而是要着眼世界范围。当然首当其冲的应当是考虑世界上最贫穷的人口和发展最差的地区。

挑战

在实现构建人类命运共同体的过程中无疑会遇到各种挑战。其中一些挑战需要在观念上做出改变,即从“我的利益”切换成“我们的利益”;从“单边主义”切换成“多边主义”;从“贸易保护主义”切换成“贸易自由化”;和从“反全球化”切换成“全球化公平竞争”。无论在意识形态领域存在多大的分歧,世界各国都应一致倡导合作和伙伴关系、多边主义、共同发展、关注当代和子孙后代的幸福、和谐和包容这些理念。

在我看来,人类命运共同体这一理念不应受到意识形态的影响。如果我们真心关注人类当下及未来的命运,构建人类命运共同体能够帮助我们摆脱困境,否则当前世界上存在的贫富差距会在未来几十年中继续加大,对世界和平和安全构成非常负面的影响。

构建人类命运共同体需要各利益相关方形成共同愿景,增进理解,积极贡献力量,充分协调合作,甘愿投入时间和精力,共享资源和战略并且共同承担责任。中国已经为世界人民的福祉提出了这一全球化倡议,但不可能让其完成所有的任务。而且其他国家也不应急于从中寻求回报。人类命运共同体的理念与2030可持续发展目标、非洲联盟2063议程以及其他的全球化倡议在各类项目和方案的实施过程中可以互为补充。我相信,这些共享未来的项目和方案一定会在全球范围内促进人类的发展。

英文版:


A Move from "My Interests" to "Our Interests"

Author |    Prof.  Peter Kagwanja, Chief Executive of the Africa Policy Institute in Kenya  

Design | Jiang Lingzhi

Production | Huang Shuocun


This year is the fortieth year of China’s opening up policy. This policy has brought a lot of benefits to China and the world at large. In the twenty first century, President Xi of China has proposed two new and great ideas that will profoundly change the international communities. These two concepts are One Belt One Road global projects and Community of Shared Destiny. Both initiatives do not conflict to each other, rather they reinforce to one another. These initiatives of China will minimize the gap between the poor and rich peoples of the world.

The community of shared future for mankind is a broad concept. It can incorporate the concerns of the international community that include world peace and security; eradication of poverty and hunger; global sustainable and inclusive development; expansion of literacy; equitable share of the global common; equality and justice; good governance; law and order; human health and dignity; gender equality; not compromising the benefit of the future generations and the like.

Community of Shared Destiny cannot be addressed through unilateral approach. Rather it needs cooperation and partnership among governments and other local, regional and international organizations. Its success will benefit the whole peoples of the world. It is inclusive to all ideologies, civilizations and religions. It is one of the best approaches in solving global problems through global efforts. Especially Africa and other least developed countries can benefit from this noble idea of president Xi.

Even if China has proposed about global initiatives of One Belt One Road and Community of Shared Destiny, both great initiatives belong to the world. In his opening speech at BRICS Summit in Johannesburg, South Africa, on July 25, 2018, President Xi has underlined about the importance of shared prosperity that benefits all peoples of the world. 

Who is to Benefit?

Currently there are about 7.3 billion peoples in the world. Community of Shared Destiny means the destiny of these billion peoples. This number shows the extent of challenges in implementing the noble notion of President Xi. It also shows how much governments of the world and other stakeholders should cooperate for the betterment of peoples of the world. 

Even if China is the second largest economy in the world, there are many million poor peoples in the country. Of course the government has pulled millions of people out of poverty. But still the task remains. Especially the gap between the poor and the rich is very high. When China considers itself as the largest developing country, it is not to be modest to the world. But it is a reality. Thus Community of Shared Destiny will also bring benefits to poor peoples of China and the world at large. But the entire burden should not be left only to China and some other supporter countries.

Africa and Shared Future

Africa is the origin of mankind, but it is also a place where mankind suffered through slave trade, colonialism, conflict, war, famine, migration among others. Many African peoples are still dying in the Mediterranean Sea because of migration. The effect of migration has created social, cultural and political chaos in various countries of the world. The success of Community of Shared Destiny notion will help to solve such global problems and will make the world prosperous and secured planet for all human beings.  

The United Nations has included the concept of shared future, which was proposed by President Xi Jinping. On 17 March 2017 Security Council Authorizes Year-Long Mandate Extension for United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, Adopting Resolution 2344. This Resolution adopted the idea of win-win and creating “a community of shared future for mankind”. Similarly the fifty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission for Social Development has included this concept saying “to take further action in areas critical to Africa’s economic and social development, in the spirit of win-win cooperation and to create a shared future”. 

Shared Destiny and Shared Responsibilities

Through multilateralism and mutual cooperation governments and other stakeholders can improve life of peoples. For this goal, extensive consultation is important to understand, plan and implement the notion of Community of Shared Destiny. This global initiative does not prevent governments to choose their own development path. 

According to Wang, former diplomat and prominent scholar of China, a “community of common destiny” is achieved through creating both a “community of shared interests” and a “community of shared responsibilities.” Thus, countries that are benefiting from the present globalization and international order should shoulder the burden of implementing the notion of Community of Shared Destiny. But this doesn’t mean that other governments are recipient of benefits from developed countries. Rather all governments in the world should play their role for the success of better future to mankind.

Community of Shared Destiny and Globalization

The notion of Community of Shared Destiny needs new types of global governance system so as to seize development opportunities in the world. For this purpose, economic globalization should get priority than political globalization, which aggravates ideological conflicts among various civilizations. 

The impact of globalization in our daily life is tremendous. Currently, developed countries are benefiting from globalization more than least developed countries. Shared future concept will increase the size of the cake from which poor countries can get benefits.

Multilateralism as a Vehicle for Community of Shared Destiny

Every country in the world has the right to development. But there are enormous global problems and challenges that need global cooperation. Thus multilateralism can lead towards cooperation and partnership to solve worldwide problems. For this purpose the international communities should discourage unilateralism, protectionism and anti-globalization actions of some great powers. In the arena of fair multilateralism and globalization least developed countries can also benefit from global trade, investment, tourism, financial institutions among others. 

Currently, China is promoting the notion of Community of Shared Destiny. However, the Trump government of the U.S.A is advocating “America First”. Both notions are opposite to one another. The former promotes the concept of “our future”, and the latter promotes the concept of “my future”. 

Proposal to Implementations

Community of Shared Destiny literally refers to a group of people (in this case the peoples of the world) bonded together by common interests and fate. These common interests of mankind are peace and security, clean environment, justice, respecting of human rights, sustainable development among others.

Our world provided us a lot of natural resources. On the other hand there are a lot of problems and challenges in the world. Such problems need cooperation and coordination among various actors:Health, Educationeace, Human Rights and Human Security, Peace, Human Rights and Human Security, Industrial Development, Agriculture development, Science and technology, Peoples-to- peoples Relations, Gender Equality, Good Governance, Environment.

 For instance,Heads of States and Governments of the world will come up with their plans and strategies in the way how to collaborate on the above mentioned cooperation areas. Similarly international organizations will do the same. It goes on. The plan will not, however, be local or regional. Rather all the plans and strategies should be at international level. Of course,priority will be given for the most disadvantaged and poorest peoples of the world. 

Challenges

In implementing the notion of Community of Shared Destiny there can be various challenges. Some of the challenges are the transformation from “my interest” to “our interest”, from “unilateralism” to “multilateralism”, from “trade protection” to “free trade”, from “anti-globalization” to “fair globalization”. Disregarding ideology the world should promote cooperation and partnership, multilateralism, common development, concern for the present and future generations, harmony and inclusiveness.

In my opinion, the notion of Community of Shared Destiny should be free from ideological influences. If one is worrying about the fate of the present and future generations of the world, implementation of Community of Shared Destiny is the way out from difficulties. Otherwise the present gap between the rich and poor peoples in the world will continue to grow in the coming couples of decades. This will have negative impact on peace and security of the world.

In building Community of Shared Destiny there is a need to develop common vision, understanding, dedication, coordination, time, resources, strategy and responsibility of various stakeholders. China has taken global initiative for the benefit of all peoples on this earth, but can’t do all tasks by herself. The world should not also expect quick profit from this concept. Community of Shared Destiny is also complementary to Sustainable Development Goals of 2030, Agenda 2063 of the African Union and other global initiatives through various programmes and projects. These shared future programmes, I believe, will enhance human development at the global level.