文 | 梅拉库·穆鲁阿勒姆（Melaku Mulualem K） 埃塞俄比亚外交关系战略研究所外交政策分析部主任
翻译 | 王晓波
编辑 | 杨海霞
设计 | 姜灵枝
制作 | 黄硕存
A Move from "My Interests" to "Our Interests"
Author | Prof. Peter Kagwanja, Chief Executive of the Africa Policy Institute in Kenya
Design | Jiang Lingzhi
Production | Huang Shuocun
This year is the fortieth year of China’s opening up policy. This policy has brought a lot of benefits to China and the world at large. In the twenty first century, President Xi of China has proposed two new and great ideas that will profoundly change the international communities. These two concepts are One Belt One Road global projects and Community of Shared Destiny. Both initiatives do not conflict to each other, rather they reinforce to one another. These initiatives of China will minimize the gap between the poor and rich peoples of the world.
The community of shared future for mankind is a broad concept. It can incorporate the concerns of the international community that include world peace and security; eradication of poverty and hunger; global sustainable and inclusive development; expansion of literacy; equitable share of the global common; equality and justice; good governance; law and order; human health and dignity; gender equality; not compromising the benefit of the future generations and the like.
Community of Shared Destiny cannot be addressed through unilateral approach. Rather it needs cooperation and partnership among governments and other local, regional and international organizations. Its success will benefit the whole peoples of the world. It is inclusive to all ideologies, civilizations and religions. It is one of the best approaches in solving global problems through global efforts. Especially Africa and other least developed countries can benefit from this noble idea of president Xi.
Even if China has proposed about global initiatives of One Belt One Road and Community of Shared Destiny, both great initiatives belong to the world. In his opening speech at BRICS Summit in Johannesburg, South Africa, on July 25, 2018, President Xi has underlined about the importance of shared prosperity that benefits all peoples of the world.
Who is to Benefit?
Currently there are about 7.3 billion peoples in the world. Community of Shared Destiny means the destiny of these billion peoples. This number shows the extent of challenges in implementing the noble notion of President Xi. It also shows how much governments of the world and other stakeholders should cooperate for the betterment of peoples of the world.
Even if China is the second largest economy in the world, there are many million poor peoples in the country. Of course the government has pulled millions of people out of poverty. But still the task remains. Especially the gap between the poor and the rich is very high. When China considers itself as the largest developing country, it is not to be modest to the world. But it is a reality. Thus Community of Shared Destiny will also bring benefits to poor peoples of China and the world at large. But the entire burden should not be left only to China and some other supporter countries.
Africa and Shared Future
Africa is the origin of mankind, but it is also a place where mankind suffered through slave trade, colonialism, conflict, war, famine, migration among others. Many African peoples are still dying in the Mediterranean Sea because of migration. The effect of migration has created social, cultural and political chaos in various countries of the world. The success of Community of Shared Destiny notion will help to solve such global problems and will make the world prosperous and secured planet for all human beings.
The United Nations has included the concept of shared future, which was proposed by President Xi Jinping. On 17 March 2017 Security Council Authorizes Year-Long Mandate Extension for United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, Adopting Resolution 2344. This Resolution adopted the idea of win-win and creating “a community of shared future for mankind”. Similarly the fifty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission for Social Development has included this concept saying “to take further action in areas critical to Africa’s economic and social development, in the spirit of win-win cooperation and to create a shared future”.
Shared Destiny and Shared Responsibilities
Through multilateralism and mutual cooperation governments and other stakeholders can improve life of peoples. For this goal, extensive consultation is important to understand, plan and implement the notion of Community of Shared Destiny. This global initiative does not prevent governments to choose their own development path.
According to Wang, former diplomat and prominent scholar of China, a “community of common destiny” is achieved through creating both a “community of shared interests” and a “community of shared responsibilities.” Thus, countries that are benefiting from the present globalization and international order should shoulder the burden of implementing the notion of Community of Shared Destiny. But this doesn’t mean that other governments are recipient of benefits from developed countries. Rather all governments in the world should play their role for the success of better future to mankind.
Community of Shared Destiny and Globalization
The notion of Community of Shared Destiny needs new types of global governance system so as to seize development opportunities in the world. For this purpose, economic globalization should get priority than political globalization, which aggravates ideological conflicts among various civilizations.
The impact of globalization in our daily life is tremendous. Currently, developed countries are benefiting from globalization more than least developed countries. Shared future concept will increase the size of the cake from which poor countries can get benefits.
Multilateralism as a Vehicle for Community of Shared Destiny
Every country in the world has the right to development. But there are enormous global problems and challenges that need global cooperation. Thus multilateralism can lead towards cooperation and partnership to solve worldwide problems. For this purpose the international communities should discourage unilateralism, protectionism and anti-globalization actions of some great powers. In the arena of fair multilateralism and globalization least developed countries can also benefit from global trade, investment, tourism, financial institutions among others.
Currently, China is promoting the notion of Community of Shared Destiny. However, the Trump government of the U.S.A is advocating “America First”. Both notions are opposite to one another. The former promotes the concept of “our future”, and the latter promotes the concept of “my future”.
Proposal to Implementations
Community of Shared Destiny literally refers to a group of people (in this case the peoples of the world) bonded together by common interests and fate. These common interests of mankind are peace and security, clean environment, justice, respecting of human rights, sustainable development among others.
Our world provided us a lot of natural resources. On the other hand there are a lot of problems and challenges in the world. Such problems need cooperation and coordination among various actors:Health, Educationeace, Human Rights and Human Security, Peace, Human Rights and Human Security, Industrial Development, Agriculture development, Science and technology, Peoples-to- peoples Relations, Gender Equality, Good Governance, Environment.
For instance,Heads of States and Governments of the world will come up with their plans and strategies in the way how to collaborate on the above mentioned cooperation areas. Similarly international organizations will do the same. It goes on. The plan will not, however, be local or regional. Rather all the plans and strategies should be at international level. Of course,priority will be given for the most disadvantaged and poorest peoples of the world.
In implementing the notion of Community of Shared Destiny there can be various challenges. Some of the challenges are the transformation from “my interest” to “our interest”, from “unilateralism” to “multilateralism”, from “trade protection” to “free trade”, from “anti-globalization” to “fair globalization”. Disregarding ideology the world should promote cooperation and partnership, multilateralism, common development, concern for the present and future generations, harmony and inclusiveness.
In my opinion, the notion of Community of Shared Destiny should be free from ideological influences. If one is worrying about the fate of the present and future generations of the world, implementation of Community of Shared Destiny is the way out from difficulties. Otherwise the present gap between the rich and poor peoples in the world will continue to grow in the coming couples of decades. This will have negative impact on peace and security of the world.
In building Community of Shared Destiny there is a need to develop common vision, understanding, dedication, coordination, time, resources, strategy and responsibility of various stakeholders. China has taken global initiative for the benefit of all peoples on this earth, but can’t do all tasks by herself. The world should not also expect quick profit from this concept. Community of Shared Destiny is also complementary to Sustainable Development Goals of 2030, Agenda 2063 of the African Union and other global initiatives through various programmes and projects. These shared future programmes, I believe, will enhance human development at the global level.