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农业农村部国际合作司:促进农耕文化交流互鉴


农业农村部国际合作司:促进农耕文化交流互鉴

导读:中国政府通过向FAO捐赠的南南合作信托基金支持发展中国家的农业文化遗产能力建设,并提高国际社会对于传统农耕文化的认识,推动更多国家参与遗产发掘、保护和利用。

● 带动了各国遗产申报与保护热潮

促进了中外农耕文化的交流互鉴

提升了农耕文化价值的国际认同

支持了粮农组织的遗产工作体系


全球重要农业文化遗产(Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems,GIAHS)是联合国粮农组织(FAO)于2002年启动的一项工作,旨在加强对传统农业生产系统以及相关的生物多样性、知识与文化体系、生态与文化景观等方面的保护。这项深具创新精神的事业在全球发展迅速,截至目前,全球21个国家的52项遗产被认定为GIAHS。

作为一个亚洲地区的农业大国和农耕文明古国,中国十分认同和赞赏FAO的遗产理念。中国国家主席习近平指出,农耕文化是中国农业的宝贵财富,不仅不能丢,而且要不断发扬光大。因此,从2005年“浙江青田稻鱼共生系统”进入全球首批遗产试点开始,中国就成为FAO这项事业的最早响应者、坚定支持者、成功实践者、重要推动者和主要贡献者。

经过十余年的探索,中国秉承“保护优先、合理利用,整体保护、协调发展,动态保护、功能拓展,多方参与、惠益共享”的方针,不断丰富遗产保护理论和实践,在遗产管理、科技支撑、国际交流、宣传推广等方面不断取得新进展,如中国在全球第一个建立国内遗产网络、第一个发布国家级管理办法、第一个启动遗产监测评估、科研论文专著数量第一,等等。FAO总干事多次盛赞中国是全球农耕文明保护的“领军者”。

中国通过农业文化遗产工作挖掘了传统农耕的智慧,使农业焕发了新活力,乡村发展增加了新动能,一二三产业融合发展,遗产所在地已经成为乡村振兴的良好范例。我们深刻认识到,这项工作不仅是尊重顺应自然规律、促进农业资源永续利用的历史选择,也是促进人与自然和谐共生、构建生态文明、实现可持续发展的现实路径。

中国既然是“领军者”,那么就要做好表率,积极发挥对于国际社会的示范带动作用。多年来,我们一直积极向其他国家分享我们的经验和做法,希望与各国一道致力于世界农耕文化的光荣事业,特别是通过与FAO共同实施多边框架下的南南合作项目,有效地提升了广大发展中伙伴的农业文化遗产工作意识和能力。

中国作为首个与FAO建立南南合作战略联盟的国家,迄今为止,已向FAO捐赠了8 000万美元的南南合作信托基金,帮助非洲、亚洲等地区28个国家约100万小农提升了粮食安全和营养水平。2015年初,中国政府决定利用上述信托基金支持发展中国家的农业文化遗产能力建设,并提高国际社会对于传统农耕文化的认识,推动更多国家参与遗产发掘、保护和利用。

经过近三年的实施,这一项目已经在国际、区域和国家层面取得了显著成效,对全球农业文化遗产事业的发展发挥了巨大的支持作用。

带动了各国遗产申报与保护热潮

在项目的支持下,中国农业农村部与FAO联合在华连续举办了4期全球重要农业文化遗产高级别培训班,来自60个国家的近100名政府官员和专家参加了培训和交流。我们邀请国内外知名专家授课,并安排学员赴中国各个遗产所在地走访,与中国农民和技术人员深入交流,取得了良好的效果。

通过这项培训,已有40多个国家启动了本国的农业文化遗产工作,并向联合国粮农组织提出了申遗请求,其中孟加拉、墨西哥、斯里兰卡和埃及等国已申报成功。近两年,新增的拥有GIAHS的国家中,九成都参与过来华培训。我们很欣慰地看到,中国作为GIAHS的培训基地和摇篮,让越来越多的国家认识到传统农业的价值和意义。

促进了中外农耕文化的交流互鉴

项目先后支持了联合国粮农组织在亚太、拉丁美洲与加勒比海、近东北非、非洲、欧洲等区域召开全球重要农业文化遗产专题研讨会,组织了60多个国家数百名政府官员和技术人员共同探讨农耕文化问题,各国分享农业文化遗产发掘与保护经验,探讨了从国家及区域水平上开展农业文化遗产保护与管理工作的挑战与发展前景。

此外,为了响应联合国粮农组织的倡议,中国先后推动“福州茉莉花与茶文化系统”“兴化垛田传统农业系统”分别与法国的“勃艮第葡萄园系统”和墨西哥的“墨西哥城浮田系统”建立“结对子”关系,推动地方层面就传统农业文化的保护与发展进行交流合作。

提升了农耕文化价值的国际认同

中国支持了全球重要农业文化遗产国际论坛的举办,还积极支持在其他国际论坛加强对农业文化遗产的广泛讨论和政策协同。在中国的努力下,很多国家逐步认识到农耕文化的重要性。一个个鲜明的案例证实了中国的努力和贡献,全球重要农业文化遗产工作先后被写入2014年《亚太经合组织粮食安全北京宣言》及2016年《二十国集团农业部长会议公报》,还被列入联合国大会二委文件多次提及。

中国在农耕文化方面的作为,不仅使发展中国家受益,一些发达国家也从中获益良多。西班牙、韩国、意大利等国家借鉴了中国农耕文化的做法,先后启动了本国农业文化遗产工作,特别是韩国已经迅速建立了国家级重要农业文化遗产体系,并通过中国发起的东亚地区农业文化遗产研究会在学术层面广为交流。

支持了粮农组织的遗产工作体系

在中国和其他相关国家的支持下,全球重要农业文化遗产工作在联合国粮农组织的法律地位不断提升,已经从最初的一个短期项目上升为常规工作,并进入粮农组织的优先重点,成为其战略目标和区域倡议关键内容之一。

近年来,在中国和其他相关国家的努力下,全球重要农业文化遗产秘书处的能力不断加强,工作规范化水平有所提升。一是支持秘书处日常运转,中国先后派遣了三名专家到秘书处短期借调工作,还支持其聘用临时国际雇员,缓解了秘书处的人力不足;二是完善工作网络,促使粮农组织通过区域和国家代表处强化了与相关国家和遗产所在地的互动;三是完善了工作规范,推动粮农组织对遗产申报标准和工作流程进行了合理调整,支持其建立监测评估工作体系;四是构建遗产知识分享平台,支持官方网页升级、提供多语种宣传资料等,促进了农耕文化的国际传播。

尽管在中国等国家的努力下,全球重要农业文化遗产取得了飞速发展,农耕文化的魅力和价值得到了较为广泛的认可。但相较于世界遗产等同类工作,全球重要农业文化遗产在国际上仍属新兴事物,遗产保护与发展工作尚处于探索阶段,未来需要做的还很多。

中国共产党的十九大报告提出,要加强文化遗产保护传承,促进人与自然和谐共生的现代化,要尊重世界文明多样性,推动人类命运共同体建设。新改组的中国农业农村部也被赋予新职能,担负着统筹中国乡村振兴战略实施的重要任务,我们愿继续支持联合国粮农组织的全球重要农业文化遗产工作,与各国加强农耕文化领域的交流互鉴,共同为全球粮食安全和农业可持续发展做出积极贡献。

秋日阡陌 

英文版:


Conserving Agribultural Diversity & Promoting Cultural Exchange


Author |  Department of International Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, P.R. China

Design | Jiang Lingzhi

Production | Huang Shuocun


It has led to a tide of agricultural heritage conservation and applications for GIAHS sites

It has promoted exchange and mutual learning on the culture of farming between China and other countries

It has facilitated global recognition of the value of farming culture

It has contributed to the development of FAO's working system of the GIAHS Programme


The Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) Programme was launched by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 2002, with the overall goal to safeguard agricultural heritage systems and their associated agricultural biodiversity, knowledge and cultural systems, as well as natural and cultural landscapes. This innovative programme has been developing rapidly at the global level, with a total of 52 sites of 21 countries have been identified as GIAHS.  

In Asia, China is a country with a large agricultural sector and an ancient farming civilization. It fully appreciates and commends FAO’s concept on GIHAS. Chinese President Xi Jinping stressed that the culture of farming is a treasure for China and should be inherited for greater development. Therefore, China was the first country to respond to the GIAHS Programme in 2005, when the Rice Fish Culture System of Qingtian County in Zhejiang Province was listed among the first GIHAS pilot sites. Since then, China has become a firm supporter, important facilitator and major contributor of the Programme, with a number of successful cases in practice. 

Building on a decade-long experience, China has contributed to the theory and practice of GIAHS conservation by following a principle of “conservation first, appropriate utilization, integrated conservation, coordinated development, dynamic conservation, function expansion, multi-stakeholder participation and shared benefits”. There has been steady progress made in GIHAS management, technology support, international exchanges, and communication and promotion. For example, China the first country that have established its national GIHAS network and administrative measures, and launched GIHAS monitoring and assessment. Chinese scholars published more research papers on GIHAS than scholars of any other country in the world. The Director General of FAO has commended China as a champion in GIHAS conservation on a number of occasions. 

Through the GIHAS Programme, China has tapped into the wisdom of traditional agricultural practices, injected fresh vitality in agriculture, added new driving force for the development of rural areas, and enabled integrated development of primary, secondary and tertiary sectors in GIHAS sites, providing a valuable experience in rural revitalization. For China, the GIHAS Programme is not only an approach to promote agricultural sustainability, but also a pathway to achieve harmony between people and nature, promote ecological conservation and realize sustainable development. 

Being a “champion”, China should set a good example by demonstrating good practices to the world. For years, China has been actively sharing its experience and practices with other countries, aiming to forge a joint commitment to the prosperity of farming cultures. In particular, South-South Cooperation (SSC) projects jointly implemented by China and FAO under the multilateral framework have effectively improved the awareness and capacity of developing partners to carry out programmes on agricultural heritage systems. 

As the first country to form a strategic alliance with FAO in South-South Cooperation, China has donated a total of 80 million USD to establish a SSC trust fund, which has helped nearly 1 million smallholders from 28 countries in Africa and Asia to improve their food and nutrition security. Since the beginning of 2015, the Chinese government initiated a program funded by the SSC trust fund to support the capacity building of developing countries in managing agricultural heritage systems, with a view to enhancing the knowledge of international community of traditional farming cultures, and engaging more countries in the development, conservation and utilization of agricultural heritages.   

After three years of implementation, this program has achieved remarkable progress at the international, regional and national level, making substantial contribution to the success of the GIAHS programme.

It has led to a tide of agricultural heritage conservation and applications for GIAHS sites

With the support of the capacity building programme, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China (MARA) and FAO have jointly conducted four senior training workshops on agricultural heritage systems, which were attended by nearly 100 government officials and experts from 60 countries. Renowned experts were invited to give lectures to the training workshops and studies tours were organized to the designated GIAHS sites in China so that trainees were able to have in-depth discussions with local farmers and technicians. Satisfactory outcomes have been achieved from these training workshops.

As a result, more than 40 countries have initiated their own agenda on agricultural heritage systems and submitted applications to FAO for the designation of GIAHS sites. A number of these applications from Bangladesh, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and Egypt have already been approved by FAO and the title of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System has been awarded to these sites. During the past two years, 90% of the countries with newly designated GIAHS sites have participated in relevant trainings in China. It is to our delight that China has become a hub for GIAHS related training and raised the awareness of the value and role of traditional farming systems among more and more countries.

It has promoted exchange and mutual learning on the culture of farming between China and other countries

The programme has supported FAO’s efforts to hold GIAHS regional workshops in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Near East and North Africa, Africa and Europe. The workshops brought together hundreds of officials and technicians from over 60 countries to exchange views on farming culture, share domestic experience in identification and conservation of GIAHS sites, and discuss the challenges and prospects of GIAHS protection and management at national and regional level.

In response to the twinning initiative proposed by FAO, China has facilitated the twinning between Fuzhou Jasmine and Tea Culture System and the “Climats”, terroirs of Burgundy of France, and between Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem and the Chinampas Agricultural System of Mexico, in order to promote regional exchange and cooperation in protection and development of traditional farming culture.

It has facilitated global recognition of the value of farming culture

China has supported the convening of the International Forum on GIAHS and extensive discussion and policy coordination on GIAHS in other international forums. China’s endeavor has enabled many countries to recognize the importance of farming culture, which is exemplified by the fact that GIAHS was written into the Beijing Declaration on APEC Food Security in 2014, G20 Agriculture Ministers Meeting Communiqué in 2016, and documents of the Economic and Financial Committee of the United Nations General Assembly. 

What China has done in regard of farming culture has benefited not only developing countries, but also developed countries. Spain, South Korea and Italy borrowed China’s experience and launched their own work on GIAHS. South Korea, in particular, has established the Korea Important Agricultural Heritage System and conducted academic exchanges through the East Asia Research Association for Agricultural Heritage Systems (ERAHS) initiated by China.

It has contributed to the development of FAO's working system of the GIAHS Programme

With the support of China and other related countries, the status of the GIAHS Programme has been significantly improved within the FAO. It has grown from a short-term project to a regular and priority programne of FAO, forming a key component of the organization’s strategic goals and regional initiatives.

In recent years, with the unwavering efforts from China and other related countries, GIAHS Secretariat has been enhancing its capacity and improving relevant procedures and standards: 

First, China has contributed to the operation of the Secretariat by dispatching three experts successively for short-term secondment, and supported the employment of temporary international staff by the Secretariat, thus alleviating its shortage of man-power. Second, China has helped FAO in developing networks and facilitated the organization’s interaction with relevant countries and GIAHS sites through its regional offices and national representations. Third, China has assisted FAO in improving the criteria and process of GIAHS application, and supported FAO in the establishment of a monitoring and evaluation system. Fourth, China has contributed to the building of the knowledge sharing platform by supporting the upgrading of FAO’s official website for GIAHS and providing multilingual advocacy materials, thereby promoting traditional farming culture in the international community.

Thanks to the concerted efforts of China and other countries, the GIAHS programme has achieved rapid development, and the charm and value of traditional farming systems have been widely recognized. However, compared with similar programmes, such as UNESCO’s World Heritage, GIAHS is still relatively new to people and in its initial stage of identifying, preserving and developing agricultural heritage systems. The journey ahead remains long and arduous.

The report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) proposes to strengthen the inheritance and protection of cultural heritage, facilitate modernization while ensuring the harmony between humans and nature, respect the diversity of world civilizations, and promote the building of the Community of Shared Future for Mankind. The newly created Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China has also been given new mandates with the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy at the core of its responsibilities. China stands ready to continue to support FAO’s GIAHS Programme and strengthen exchanges with other countries in the field of farming culture to contribute to global food security and sustainable agricultural development.