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中埃共建双赢贸易关系


中埃共建双赢贸易关系

文I希沙姆·阿布巴卡尔(Hisham AbuBakr Metwally) 埃及工贸部进出口政策研究中心首席经济研究员

    翻译 | 齐晓彤  

编辑 | 张梅 

导读:

几十年以来非洲只出口原材料,自从许多非洲国家与中国在基础设施与工业区开展合作后,他们的出口结构变得多元。

● 中埃贸易现状

挑战

埃中贸易实现突破的途径:吸引投资

11月5日,中国首届大型国际进口博览会在上海召开。中国免除许多非洲国家参展费用,以提高他们在博览会的影响力。此次博览会的召开响应了许多非洲国家扩大本国商品进入中国市场的请求。
作为本届博览会的嘉宾国,埃及总理穆斯塔法·马德布利博士在埃及工贸部部长纳赛尔的陪同下出席了进口博览会开幕式。此次埃及代表团由38个企业代表组成。
进口博览会为埃及食品、农业、医药、纺织与服装产品进入中国市场创造重要契机,也为埃及服务产业(如旅游业、文化产业)进入前景广阔的中国市场提供条件。

中埃贸易现状

过去的五年里,埃-中双边贸易实现了大飞跃,埃及向中国商品开放了市场大门。在过去的一年里,中国开始对埃及商品(特别是农产品)加大市场开放,向埃及传达了积极的信号,中国实实在在想与埃及建立公平贸易关系。
2017年,埃中贸易量达到110亿美元。今年前七个月,埃中双边贸易额同比增长了24%,增至75亿美元。这七个月以来,中国对埃及出口达到65亿美元,同比增长22.6%。中国对埃及进口达到10亿美元,同比增长34.1%,延续了埃及对华出口持续增长的态势。2017年埃及对华出口的非石油制品增至4.08亿美元,相比于2016年的2.55亿美元提高了60%。
2017年中国进口14.5亿美元大理石、石灰华制品,其中自埃及进口1.14亿美元,可见这个数字还有较大增长空间。此外,中国自埃及进口0.78亿美元新鲜橙子和1000万美元优质棉花。
埃及连接亚非,战略地理位置优越,是非洲、阿拉伯世界通往亚洲的大门。从欧洲经由地中海也要通过埃及这道大门才能来到非洲大陆上。
埃及被认为是一带一路倡议的焦点。在埃及能够接触到广阔的市场,源自埃及的产品与服务能够免税进入欧洲市场(由于欧洲合作关系)、阿拉伯国家共同市场、东南非共同市场以及美国(大多数埃及产商品的免税市场),并能触达12亿收入状况良好、有消费能力的消费人群。
目前共有1459个中国企业在埃及开展业务,约68%的中资集中投入到各大产业项目中,15%在金融产业,9%在通讯与信息技术产业,8%在其他产业,共创造27566个就业岗位。
其中,工业领域处于领先地位,有764家企业,投资约4.03亿美元;紧随其后的是服务业,有473家企业,总投资额为9300万美元;位列第三的是工程建筑业,有72家企业,8400万美元资金投入;通讯信息技术领域投资排第四,有82家企业,1400万美元资金投入;再其后是农业,有51家企业,1300万美元资金投入;旅游业投资位列第六,相比于之前几个领域是资金投入最少,仅有400万美元,17家企业。

挑战

埃及希望扩大向中国市场的商品出口,特别是农产品、服装、纺织、家具、大理石制品等等。埃及在农业生产方面有着悠久的历史,埃及果蔬品质享誉全世界。埃及还是世界上橙子出口大国之一。同埃及柠檬一样,埃及橙子因其味道独特、香气淡雅、维他命含量丰富的特点而闻名。埃及是全世界最大的大枣出口国,埃及的大枣质量上乘,故而闻名于世。埃及对华非石油产品的出口量占比不大,两国政府最近做出许多努力提振非石油产品出口,收效甚微。埃及期望中国扩大进口埃及产品,例如埃及大枣。
近期中国农业部派代表团到访埃及,视察农场与农作物种植过程,随后,双方就埃及产品进入中国市场拟定协议。目前协议还在商讨过程中。这批农产品包括埃及石榴、葡萄、草莓、土豆、洋葱和大蒜。
埃及文明历史悠久,旅游业源远流长,全世界三分之一的历史遗产分布在埃及各个城市中。埃及气候宜人、海滩优美,旅游景点城市闻名于世,如沙姆沙伊赫市和赫尔加达市。但是,中国游客占所有来埃及游客数量的比例较少,虽然,去年来自中国的游客人次达到了50万,是上年10万人次的5倍,但是,埃及希望每年至少能有3百万中国游客来埃及旅游。
埃及政府需要确保所有埃及产品都符合中国卫生技术条件,以便顺利进入中国市场。埃及商人在产品开发过程中需要考虑中国各个层次的消费情况,必要时要利用中国团队的经验,共同设计开发。
未来中国赴埃及游客可以在机场获得签证费用减免的优惠,希望埃及游客到中国也可以获得同等待遇。

埃中贸易实现突破的途径:吸引投资

如果中国市场向埃及农产品敞开大门,埃及非石油制品出口量将翻数番。
2016年11月,两国签署合作协议,埃及葡萄或准进入中国市场。葡萄是继柑橘之后第二个进入中国市场的水果。过去一年,埃及对华柑橘出口量上涨迅猛——从2016年的2300万美元到2017年7830万美元,提高了240%。未来将会有更多埃及农产品出口到中国市场,目前,埃及农产品进口到中国的相关流程制定已经进入了尾声。埃及棉花质量上乘,产品远销海内外(包括中国市场)。基于此优势,埃及建立了纺织工业园,以吸引更优质服装生产商到埃及建厂,利用埃及优质的棉花,生产高端服装,并使产品从埃及走向世界,包括中国市场。这将对减少埃及对华贸易逆差产生积极意义。
中国发展潜力巨大,可以帮助埃及修建现代灌溉系统,摆脱农业用水紧缺的困境。中国可以帮助埃及扩大150万英亩灌溉面积,帮助埃及落实国家农业项目。埃及也将提高大型农场机械化水平,大量生产高品质作物,以满足庞大的中国市场需求。
中国开设了从成都市到开罗市的直达航线,未来埃及将吸引更多中国游客,这是旅游业的一大进展。
几十年以来,非洲只出口原材料,自从许多非洲国家与中国在基础设施与工业园区建设方面开展大规模合作以后,他们的出口结构变得多元,对国家创收产生积极影响。
埃及受益于一系列中国的非洲项目融资机制,例如中非发展基金、中非产能合作基金,以及中国向非洲提供的促进产能提高的软贷款。
非洲国家应参与中国主办的国际性展览会,按照中国进口的标准将自己的产品以一种引人注目的方式呈现出来,充分发挥自身优势。
非洲国家也应提供合适的物流支持——从交通到产品储存,以一种正确、合适的方式将产品出口到中国。
非洲应加强科技教育,提高劳动力水平,达到对非洲有投资、生产意向的经营者的标准。并需要尽快完成立法完善法律,鼓励投资,保证投资者权利。
许多非洲国家的金融机构水平欠佳且服务种类有限,无法满足投资与金融服务需求。应该给予金融部门更多的关注,确保资金来源与转账的安全性与便捷性。

⬆中国国际进口博览会埃及国家馆(CFP)


英文版:

In 5th of November China opened its first major international exhibition for imports in Shanghai. Many of African countries have been given free participation for strengthening their presence in the exhibition.
The exhibition also comes at the request of many African countries seeking to more open up Chinese markets for their products.
Egypt is a guest of honor at the exhibition. Dr. Mostafa Madbouli, Egyptian Prime Minister accompanied by Eng. Amr Nassar Minister of Trade and Industry, participated in the opening of the exhibition. The Egyptian pavilion included 38 companies.
It’s expected that the exhibition offers huge opportunities for Egyptian food, agricultural, pharmaceutical, textiles and clothing products to penetrate the Chinese market. It will also provide opportunities for the Egyptian service sectors such as tourism and culture to enter the promising Chinese market.

Trade opportunities between China and Egypt

In the past five years, Egypt-China bilateral trade has witnessed a big leap where Egypt has opened up its markets to the Chinese products. In the past year, China has started to open up more its market for Egyptian products specially the agriculture sector. That gave good indication to Egypt that China really wants fair relations with Egypt. The volume of trade exchange between Egypt and China reached 11 billion dollars in 2017. China’s bilateral trade volume grew 24 percent year-on-year in the first seven months of this year to US $ 7.5 billion. Chinese exports to Egypt reached 6.5 billion US dollars in the seven months, up 22.6 percent year-on-year.China’s imports from Egypt reached US $ 1 billion, an increase of 34.1% year on year, which is a continuation of the increasing course of Egyptian exports to China. Egypt’s exports of non oil products to the Chinese market in 2017 rose to 408 million dollars compared to 255 million dollars in 2016, an increase of 60%.
Egypt exported to china Marble & travertine with $114 million 2017 while china import from that item $1.45 billion dollars which means there still big room to expand the Egyptian exports from that item.
Egypt exported also fresh Oranges with $78 million to china. Egypt exported high quality cotton with 10 million dollar to china. Egypt has a strategic location connecting the continents of Africa and Asia and being an Asian portal for the African and Arab worlds and an African portal for Europe through the Mediterranean Sea.
Egypt is considered a focal point in the Belt and Road Initiative. Egypt has high Access to markets. The number of financially capable consumers is 1.2 billion who have consuming abilities where the goods and services produced in Egypt are exempted from customs and duties upon entering the European markets (European partnership), Arab countries common market, Africa (common market for east and south Africa (COMESA) and the united states of America (where most of the Egyptian products are exempted).
The number of Chinese companies working in Egypt is 1459 company.
About 68 percent of China’s investments are concentrated in industrial projects, 15 percent in finance, 9 percent in communications and information technology, 8 percent other sector that provided about 27,566 jobs.
The industrial sector is led by 764 companies and investments about 403 million dollars, followed by the service sector with total investments of 93 million dollars and 473 companies, and the construction sector comes in third place 84 million dollars and 72 companies. Investments in the telecommunications and IT sector ranked fourth with $ 14 million, 82 companies, followed by agriculture with $ 13 million and 51 companies. Tourism investments ranked sixth and final with $ 4 million and 17 companies.

The challenges

Egypt seeks increase its exports to the Chinese market in the field of commodities, especially agricultural products, clothing, textiles, furniture, marble and others.
Egypt is an ancient country in agricultural production and enjoys its products of vegetables and fruits with a good international reputation. Egypt is one of the largest exporters of orange, which is distinguished by its distinctive taste and its smart aroma and rich in vitamins and so as Egyptian lemons.
Egypt is the largest exporter of dates in the world where it is distinguished by its distinctive quality. However, the volume of Egyptian exports of non-petroleum products to China is still very modest despite the recent efforts made by the governments of the two countries to support this file, but the results are still not visible.
Recently, a committee from the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture visited Egypt to inspect the farms and procedures and to approve the entry of Egyptian products. However, the file is still under consideration and pending final decision, as well as Egyptian pomegranate, grapes, strawberries, potatoes, onions and garlic.
In the field of tourism, Egypt has a long history, it is the oldest civilization with one third of the world’s effects and the effects are distributed to all Egyptian cities. In addition Egypt enjoys a mild climate, wonderful beaches and famous tourist cities such as Sharm el-Sheikh and Hurghada.
The volume of Chinese tourists is still modest for the number of tourists coming to Egypt as well as for China’s foreign tourism, the Number of Chinese tourists has reached 500 thousand tourists in the last year, five times more than the previous 100 thousand tourists, but Egypt is expecting at least 3 million tourists annually coming from China.
The Egyptian government should make sure that the Chinese sanitary and technical requirements have been applied to all Egyptian goods so that can easily access the Chinese market. Egyptian businessmen must develop their products to take into account the consumer markets of Chinese consumers in all its layers, which requires the use of Chinese experience houses to make joint designs.
In the future, Chinese tourists can be granted access to Egypt by granting a visa at the airport with the reduction or cancellation of visa fee, with emphasis on reciprocity for the Egyptian tourist.

How Egypt can make breakthroughs in the trade with China?

Where the adoptions of Egyptian agricultural items alone can double the volume of Egyptian non-oil exports several times.
In November 2016 a protocol of cooperation between the two countries was signed to allow Egypt’s grape exports to reach China. Grapes become the second Egyptian fruit crop after citrus to enter the Chinese market. Egypt’s citrus exports to China have grown significantly over the past year from $ 23 million in 2016 to reach $ 78.3 million in 2017, an increase of 240%. More exports of Egyptian agricultural crops are expected to enter the Chinese market in the coming period, especially from dates, which are currently completing technical procedures for export from Egypt to China.
Egypt has allocated an integrated textile city to China to establish the highest quality garment factories and benefit from the Egyptian cotton of high quality and the world’s reputation for export to all countries of the world, including the Chinese market. That will be reflected positively on reducing the deficit trade between Egypt and China.
China, with its enormous potential, can contribute to Egypt’s overcoming the problem of scarcity of water for agriculture by establishing modern irrigation systems. China will also be able to contribute to the national project of Egypt by 1.5 million acres. Egypt can also follow the policy of large farms with high mechanization, which will enable it to produce crops of high quality and in large quantities to suit the large Chinese demand.
The upcoming tourism has made remarkable progress recently as China has set up a direct air route from the Chinese city of Chengdu to Cairo, which will contribute to increasing the number of Chinese tourists in the coming period.
For many decades, African exports have depended on raw materials only, but after the establishment of giant projects in infrastructure and industrial zones in many African countries in cooperation with China, the export structure of many African countries has become diversified and has added value to the national income of these countries. Taking advantage of the financing mechanisms available by China to finance investment projects in Africa, namely the China-Africa Development Fund, the China Fund for Productive Capacity Enhancement, and the soft loans provided by China to African countries to raise productive capacities. African countries should take an interest in participating in international exhibitions in China and present their products correctly and attractively to the Chinese importer’s definition and advantages.  African countries should also provide appropriate logistic support from the means of transportation, storage and preservation of their products so as to reach the Chinese importer correctly and properly. Africa should lead to technical education in order to obtain advanced and distinct employment that can meet the requirements of businessmen who wish to invest and produce in Africa. Legislation and laws that encourage investment and guarantor of investor rights must be completed as soon as possible.Financial institutions in many African countries are weak and non-proliferation enough to cover the demand for investment and financial services. The sector should be given attention to ensure safe and easy access and transfer of funds.