文I 阿卜杜勒·阿齐兹《苏丹人报》高级编辑 翻译I 王晓波 图片提供I 阿卜杜勒·阿齐兹
棉花是苏丹最重要的农作物之一，在其石油产业开发前是国家最主要的外汇收入。在2012年6月国家生物安全委员会成立后，苏丹开始种植转基因抗虫棉，并且只有一种被称为Seini 1的棉花被允许在灌溉和旱作地区种植和商业推广。Seini是一种中国的转基因类型的抗虫棉（异源四倍体），它携带来自Bacillus thurengenesis (Bt)的Cry 1A 基因，是一种2004年中国官方机构批准的可以作为商业化生产的杂交棉，代号是CN-C01。
El-Dali和 El-Mazmoum 是苏丹国营棉花出口商，其主席兼总干事Hashim Hago Ibrahim也表达了类似的关切。他认为苏丹与中国目前在农业服务和技术领域的合作远远达不到双方的实际需要。
国家立法议会议长Jalal Min Allah Gibril说，中国公司除了在苏丹建纺织厂和成衣厂，还将种植45万费丹的棉花。
Sudan is looking forward to restoring the dream of the cotton
By Mohamed Abdelaziz，Senior Editor in Alsudani newspaper
Doesn't much better for Sudan, if haveability to product cotton 5 tons per hectare, it will be better for Sudaneseeconomic after great shock, when it lost 80% of resources with South Sudanseparation in 2011.
It's not impossible dream, there isexperience in south Kyrgyzstan, after cooperation with China, that project hasbeen started in 2003.
Sudan is seeking Chinese investment in itsagricultural industry, aiming to turn the emerging sector into a new highlightof bilateral economic ties.
The African nation's business relationswith China had previously been focused on the petroleum sector, but this ismainly concentrated in South Sudan, which seceded in July 2011.
Sudan is the largest country in Africa withan area of 2.5 million square km. Although Sudan has an arable land area of 84million hectares, only 20% is utilized for agriculture, according to that theycalled it "the breadbasket of the world".
Cotton is one of the most importantSudanese crops and was the main foreign exchange earner before the developmentof a national oil industry. Sudan adopted Bt cotton in June 2012 after theconstitution of the National Biosafety Council. Only one variety, named Seini1, was released for commercialization for both irrigated and rainfed areas. Seiniis a Chinese Bt-cotton genotype (G. hirsutum) carrying the Cry 1A gene fromBacillus thurengenesis (Bt); a hybrid CN-C01 was approved for commercialproduction by the Chinese National Authority in 2004.
Cotton is a major cash crop in Sudan butproduction declined in recent years because of bollworm infestation. Theintroduction of Bt cotton in Sudan was thus a welcome change and is expected toboost cotton productivity, restore cotton as a main cash crop, and serve as amajor contributor to the country's economy.
Specialist in Sudanese-Chinese relationsElsir M.Nour said: "Chinese investment in our agricultural industry is atan initial stage and the investment volume is small compared with its spendingin the petroleum sector".
He added:" the sector's prospects were"very bright" if the nation combined its land and resources withChinese technology, management and financial support.
He added that the key task for Sudan is toenhance its agricultural output, and increase exports of cotton, meat, sugar andsesame to China.
"We would like Chinese investors toprocess raw materials in Sudan and to increase its added value in thecountry," he added.
"Sudan's promotion of its agriculturalindustry is somewhat related to the secession of South Sudan, which had 90percent of the oil resources," said Wu Fang, a researcher at the ChineseAcademy of International Trade and Economic Cooperation under the Ministry ofCommerce.
She added that China needs "acomprehensive plan for agricultural cooperation with Sudan which includes aid,investment and technological parks".
Despite the bright prospects, Zhou Xin,deputy general manager of China Shandong International Economic & TechnicalCooperation Group Ltd, called for more support from the Sudanese government andthe implementation of favorable policies.
Nowadays the Sudanese dream is coming soclose, after cooperation agreements between Khartoum and Beijing.
Last August Speaker of Gazira stateLegislative Council disclosed the Sudanese government and Chinese companieshave signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) allowing the latter to grow onemillion feddans of cotton in Sudan.
The feddan is a unit of area equivalent to1.038 acres (0.42 ha).
Last May, Sudan’s Minister of WaterResources, Irrigation and Electricity, Mutaz Musa, pointed out that theministry is implementing 155 electricity projects with china at a cost of 10billion dollars.
He said that his government will fund the$10 billion projects from multiple sources, adding that the five-year planincludes power plants and dams.
On Wednesday, speaker of the Gazira stateLegislative Council Jalal Min Allah Gibril said the Chinese companies wouldcultivate 450,000 feddans in his state besides building textile and ready-madeclothing factories.
In 2013, the then Sudan’s minister ofagriculture Abdel Halim al-Mutafi, announced that his government signed anagricultural cooperation agreement with Beijing which gives Chinese companiesseveral options to operate in Sudan.
Hashim Hago Ibrahim, president anddirector-general of Sudanese cotton exporter El-Dali and El-Mazmoum NationalCo, said that the current level of cooperation between Sudan and China inagricultural services and technology is insufficient to meet the demand fromboth sides.
In 2012, at the beginning ofcommercialization, Sudan cultivated only 19,300 hectares with Bt cotton butthat was increased to 61,530 hectares in 2013 (89% of the cultivated area forcotton) and this year it reached almost 100%, with a cultivation area of some78,500 hectares.
The endogenous control of bollworms resultsin a reduction of the production cost, an increase in cotton productivity, andthe maintenance of a favorable environmental balance. In addition, Bt cottoncontributes to a reduction in the damage caused by sucking insects and in theimprovement of cotton quality by limiting stickiness. The cost of cottoninsecticides and application for non Bt cotton cost $892 per hectare, reducingto $586 for Bt cotton, a savings of about 35%. The net profit for farmers fromcultivating BT cotton was estimated to reach $405 per hectare.
A total of 61,530 hectares of Bt cottonwere planted in Sudan in 2013 by about 27,000 farmers, up more than three-foldfrom the 20,000 hectares in 2012. Of Sudan's total national cotton hectarage of78,573.6 hectares in 2014, 99% was biotech cotton either in irrigated orrainfed areas.
Thecommercially grown Bt cotton variety named “Seeni 1” was released by theNational Variety Release Committee in March 2012 and approved by the BiosafetyAuthority for commercial production in June 2012.
In2012, Bt cotton saved 37% of the direct cost of cotton production. Producingnon-Bt cotton was much more costly at US$886 per hectare, compared with US$586for Bt cotton.
“Sudan is the first COMESA member state tocommercialize a GM crop, thus providing a good experiential learning base forCOMESA countries,” said Dr. Getachew Belay, Senior Biotechnology Policy Advisor–Alliance forCommodity Trade in Eastern & Southern Africa (ACTESA/COMESA). Dr Belay saidthat the visit was an important activity in view of the recently developedCOMESA Biosafety Policy intended to provide an enabling scientific regionalrisk assessment of GMOs for commercial planting, trade and access to emergencyfood aid for COMESA Member States. “The lessons learned by Sudanese farmersshould be shared for the benefit of Member States within the region,” said Dr.Belay
Earnest efforts are now being made by theSudanese government to revive both cotton production and the domestic textileindustry. The Bt cotton program is an effort that responds to a real need andis poised to position Sudan back in the global map as a major player in theworld cotton trade.