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中国埃塞合作走过70年




中国埃塞合作走过70年

文|特肖梅·托加(Teshome Toga) 埃塞俄比亚驻华大使    翻译|苗佳雨


  导 读 

中非共同发展的黄金时代已经到来,两国的合作在2000年中非合作论坛和“一带一路”倡议提出之后正在不断加深

全面战略合作伙伴

借鉴中国经验  寻求自我发展

设定共同发展目标

解决问题   加强合作


 

自1949年以来,中国在经济增长和社会发展方面取得的进步可谓举世瞩目,其经济的壮大也有力地推动了世界经济的增长。经济的增长和转型使中国数百万人摆脱了贫困。中国也通过引入市场经济体制、现代技术和管理实现了改革开放,书写了中国全球合作的新篇章。

全面战略合作伙伴

中国和埃塞俄比亚的合作在过去三十年里迅猛发展,双边关系在2017年提升为全面战略合作伙伴关系。2020年将迎来埃中建交50周年,双方也将以此为契机,不断深化和扩大合作。

中国已成为世界第二大经济体,对全球经济的影响力也与日俱增。这为埃中两国在外商直接投资、贸易、技术援助和技能培训等方面紧密合作奠定了基础。中国是埃塞俄比亚最大的外国直接投资来源国和最大的贸易伙伴。中国不仅帮助埃塞俄比亚提升硬实力,如修建铁路和公路等基础设施,还在扶贫、人力资源开发和医疗保健等方面施以援手,提升其软实力。

三十年来,埃中合作之所以稳步发展,双边关系之所以充满活力,主要由于两国在经济发展、扶贫政策方面有很多相似之处。中国一贯有向发展中国家提供非政治性援助的传统。中国与各国合作的规模各不相同,但对埃塞俄比亚来说,中国在过去三十年中一直是经济发展的重要伙伴。

借鉴中国经验  寻求自我发展

中国给予埃塞俄比亚的支持主要集中在政府合作项目上,而这正是欧洲私人投资者和其他传统援助国较少关注的,因为他们需要大规模融资,因为他们与埃塞俄比亚政府关注的重点不同。例如在交通方面,与传统的援助国不同,中国援建了很多大型项目,例如亚的斯亚贝巴——阿达玛高速公路,亚的斯亚贝巴——吉布提铁路,亚的斯亚贝巴轻轨和德雷达瓦——德瓦勒高速公路。

两国的合作主要体现在经济发展领域,特别是在基础设施建设,能源供应,工业发展,创造市场机会以及增加对埃直接投资等方面。如今,在工程和科学领域,两国已通过奖学金的形式将合作的范围扩展到了技能和技术培训以及人力资源开发等方面。

中国在过去四十年中以惊人的速度实现了社会经济的转型,走出了一条改革开放的成功之路。四十年来,中国使7亿多人摆脱了贫困,这在近代史上是绝无仅有的。

在中国巨大经济成功的启发下,包括埃塞俄比亚在内的其他新兴经济体和发展中国家正开始将中国的经济模式与自身情况相结合。在这种背景下,中国与埃塞俄比亚展开合作,向其分享成功经验以及发展过程中的经验教训。


⬆亚吉铁路

设定共同发展目标

随着中国经济向更高的阶段发展,其劳动密集型产业的对外投资对埃塞俄比亚和南半球其他发展中国家应对产业结构调整和物流业发展的挑战至关重要。在这种情况下,对于埃塞俄比亚和中国投资者来说,劳动密集型产业(如纺织、建材家具和电器)以及上下游相关产业的对外投资就十分关键。中国政府对埃塞俄比亚不附带政治条件的援助更使其受益颇多。两国应共同努力,制定贸易投资,人力资源开发,人员往来和知识转移等方面的共同目标,还应明确投资方式,保持经济的持续发展。同时,两国还需与有关各方通力合作,克服障碍,应对国内、区域和全球的经济波动。
我们应通过以下方式在各级政府强化现有的经济合作机制:

•通过PPP和IPP模式以低息贷款兴修基础设施(公路、铁路、桥梁、水坝等),开发能源产业(水力发电、太阳能、风能),架设输电线,修建发电厂,扫清前期发展障碍;

•开发旅游业,加强公私合作;

•提升生产水平,尤其在产量,质量和包装等方面;应根据季节计划和开展生产工作。

解决问题   加强合作

中非共同发展的黄金时代已经到来。中国作为世界上最大的发展中国家,树立了不懈努力就能实现繁荣的榜样,能够在推动非洲发展的过程中发挥重要作用。

和任何伙伴关系一样,在中非合作的过程中,批评和误解不绝于耳,毫无根据的论断常有所闻。人们常常忘记非洲是一块辽阔且多元的大陆,总是把它视为单一的整体一概而论,极具误导性。人们应该始终牢记,衡量伙伴关系的成败在非洲是因国而异的,甚至从一个区域到另一个区域都是不同的。

有一种说法称中国在非洲正在进行一种经济上的新殖民化,这种说法没有任何真凭实据,非洲人对此予以了强烈反驳。非洲人已经足够成熟,不允许中国或任何其他国家对其进行新殖民化。中国也没有这种意图。在中非伙伴关系中,项目执行能力和技术水平尚待提高,有效管理,贸易失衡等相关的问题仍然制约着发展,这些都是我们正在解决的问题。当然,要解决问题,我们就需要增加而非减少合作。

埃塞俄比亚与中国的友好关系以相互了解和主权平等为基础,在政治和经济领域的密切合作已有半个多世纪。两国的政策制定均以不干预他国内政为原则,奉行有助于摆脱贫困的经济发展理念和战略。在这个过程中,埃塞俄比亚能够独立自主地制定政策以适应其自身情况。两国的合作在2000年中非合作论坛和“一带一路”倡议提出之后正在不断加深。


英文版



Ethiopia and China relation through the lens of China’s 70 years advancement

By H.E.Ambassador Teshome Toga of The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia to China


China
has registered what can be called a miraculous economic growth and
social development since 1949. The substantial expansion of Chinese
economy has also immensely contributed to world economic growth. The
growth and transformation helped China graduate millions out of poverty,
and the reform and opening up of China to the world through the
introduction of the market economy system, modern technology and
management opened a new chapter in China’s global cooperation. 

China-Ethiopia
cooperation soared in the past three decades and the tie between the
two was elevated to a Comprehensive Strategic Cooperative Partnership in
the year 2017. Next year, 2020 will mark the 50th anniversary of the
setting up of our diplomatic relations and the two are working to deepen
and widen their cooperation in the years to come.

China
recently has become the second largest economy in the world and it is
increasingly playing an important and influential role in the global
economy. This has unprecedentedly opened the door for more improved
relation with Ethiopia in terms of Foreign Direct Investment, trade,
technical assistance, investment, skill and knowledge transfer among
others. China is Ethiopia's largest source of foreign direct investment
and largest trading partner. Not only is China doing hard infrastructure
projects in Ethiopia like rail and road; but also assisting in the soft
ones like poverty alleviation, human resources development, health
care, etc.

In
fact, Chinese cooperation with Ethiopia and the dynamics of Ethio-China
relationships in the last three decades can mainly be explained by the
similarities of their pro poor economic policies. China has a track
record of providing non political development aid and assistance to
developing countries. Although the size of Chinese economic cooperation
varies noticeably across countries, Ethiopia is one of the cases where
China emerges as a key partner for economic development registered in
the country for the last three decades.

China
provides the bulk of its support to policy fields that have received
less attention by private investors from Europe and other traditional
donors, due to their requirement of large scale financing or because of
diverging priorities between the latter and the Ethiopian government. In
transport sector, for example, unlike traditional donors, China
supports several mega projects such as the Addis Ababa-Adama expressway,
Addis Ababa-Djibouti railway, Addis Ababa light railway, and Dire
Dawa-Dewalle highway.

The
cooperation between the two countries has been illustrated on their
collaboration in the fields of economic development intra alia on
infrastructure development, energy supply, industrial development,
creating market opportunities as well as the increase in the flow of
Chinese Foreign Direct Investment to Ethiopia. It is also evident that,
the two countries expanded their horizon of cooperation to the other
dimension cooperation called skill and knowledge transfer and human
resource development in the fields of engineering and science which have
been mostly demonstrated in the forms of China's scholarship.

China
achieved what can be described as a phenomenal fast social and economic
transformation over the past 40 years that marked a successful path of
reform and opening up. During this period, China lifted up over half a
billion people out of poverty, unparalleled in a recent history of
development.

Inspired
by this tremendous economic success, other emerging economies and
developing countries, including Ethiopia, are emulating by adapting
China's economic model to their unique circumstances. In this case,
China is partnering with Ethiopia in sharing opportunities and lessons
from its success stories and also from its mistakes in the development
endeavour.

As
the Chinese economy moves to its upper ladder, migrating Chinese
investment of labor intensive industries has become instrumental in
addressing structural and logistic challenges in Ethiopia and other
countries in the South. In this regard, the relocation of
labor-intensive manufacturing industries such as textile, manufacturing
building materials, furniture's and appliances as well as related
upstream and downstream industries is very essential for Ethiopia and
Chinese investors. Moreover, Ethiopia can benefit more from political
free aid and assistances of Chinese government. Moreover, the two
countries shall work together in setting the common goals and objectives
in trade and investment as well as human resource development, people
to people relations, trade and knowledge transfer etc. They should also,
map out the types of investments commonly beneficial to their continued
economic development in Ethiopia and beyond. It will be necessary to
work with the concerned parties to avoid obstacles by removing taking
complimentary strategy to overcome national, regional and global
economic maneuvers. It is also vital to strengthen the existing economic
cooperation mechanism at all levels of Government through:

•infrastructure
development projects (road, rail, bridges, dams, etc.), energy projects
(hydro, solar, wind), power transmission lines and steam stations to be
built with low-interest loans, if possible, by PPP and IPP; Work to
eliminate early barriers;

•strengthen tourism, public-private partnerships;

•Support
business capacity building, particularly in the areas of supply,
quality and packaging problems; Tasks should be planned and implemented
according to the season.

This
is the ideal time for China and Africa to grow together. China as the
largest developing economy in the world can play significant role in the
development of Africa by sharing its experience that prosperity is
achievable through hard work and perseverance.

Like
any partnership, the China Africa partnership was never spared from
criticism, misperception and often times suffer from gross
generalisation and lack of evidence based approach. One should always
bear in mind that when talking about successes or failures of the
partnership, it would vary from one country to another and even from one
sub-region to another in Africa. However, Africa as always suffer from
being treated as one single entity and generalization of this diverse
and huge continent is bound to be misleading.

The
recent narrative that China is neo-colonizing Africa economically is
strongly refuted by Africans and apparently not corroborated by
evidence. Africans are mature enough not to allow neo-colonization by
China or any other power for that matter. Nor, does China have any
intention of such a sort. China – Africa Business is by far less
compared to the business of our critiques with China. In China-Africa
partnership, capacity to implement projects, lack of technological
capability, issues related to good governance, trade imbalance, value
addition are constraints and are work in progress. In all earnest, the
solution is more cooperation and not less.

The
relationship between Ethiopia and China is based on mutual
understanding and sovereign equality. The two states have been enjoying
this cordial relationship in political and economic fields for more than
half a century. Their mutual Policies were emanated from their candid
Principles of non intervention in to the internal affairs of a sovereign
state as well as the pro-poor economic development theories and
strategies. Ethiopia enjoyed policy independence to make its own policy
and strategy befitting its own situation. This believed to have
contributed enormously to the existing fraternal relationship between
the two countries. Moreover, it continued to deepen after the
establishment of the China Africa Cooperation Forum (FOCAC) in 2000 and
the Belt and Road Initiative.





| 特肖梅·托加(Teshome Toga)

编辑 | 张梅

翻译|苗佳雨

设计 |高蕊