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“进入区域市场从卢旺达开始”——专访卢旺达驻华大使詹姆斯·基莫尼奥(James Kimonyo)



“进入区域市场从卢旺达开始”

——专访卢旺达驻华大使詹姆斯·基莫尼奥(James Kimonyo)

文|张梅 本刊记者   翻译|苗佳雨


  导 读 

卢中两国良好的关系为中国公司在卢旺达投资兴业及打入区域市场奠定了基础。目前,卢旺达有900多家中国公司,涵盖制造业,加工业,房地产业,采矿业,旅游业等各个领域

建设统一、民主、包容的卢旺达

优化营商环境

拓展两国合作

 

1月,刚刚到任的卢旺达驻华大使詹姆斯·基莫尼奥(James Kimonyo)接受本刊记者采访时表示,“良好的关系为中国公司在卢旺达投资兴业及打入区域市场奠定了基础。同时,卢旺达的产品也有机会进入世界上最大的市场,且出口量有所增加。双方在医疗、能源、教育等多领域合作都有很多机遇。”

建设统一、民主、包容的卢旺达

詹姆斯·基莫尼奥大使说到,按照目前的走势,卢旺达2019年经济增速有望超过国际货币基金组织11月预测的8.5%。去年7月至9月,卢旺达创下了11.9%的增长纪录,产品和服务的总产值显著增加。

经济的快速增长得益于服务业和工业的发展以及农业改革。数据显示,服务业占GDP的比重最大,为49%,农业和工业占比分别为27%和17%。服务业增长了13%,其中,本土和进口产品的批发及零售额增长了25%,运输服务因卢旺达航空拓展航线而增加了18%,金融服务增长了9%。农业增长了8%,粮食和茶叶、咖啡等出口作物对GDP的贡献增加。工业在建筑业和制造业的推动下增长了14%。

2020年进入卢旺达《2020年愿景》的收关之年。大使对记者说,《2020愿景》彰显了卢旺达人的决心和信念,在经历了多年的专制和排他主义统治后,我们要建设一个统一、民主、包容的卢旺达。

《2020愿景》规划的重点是加强政府治理和国家实力,开发人力资源,建设知识型经济,形成私营部门主导的经济体系,发展基础设施,发展高产量和市场为导向的农业,加强区域和国际经济一体化。

我们的成果是很惊人的。卢旺达实现了经济的快速增长和稳定的宏观经济。自2000年发布《2020愿景》以来,卢旺达的GDP从2000年的17.3亿美元增加到了2019年的102.1亿美元。
私营部门投资一直是经济增长和发展的主要驱动力,政府不断进行改革来发展私营部门,建设基础设施,方便企业融资。
国内融资和贷款占财政预算的比例增加。2018-2019年度,国内融资和贷款占政府预算的84%以上,而2005年只有55%。

我们的目标已经达成了85%以上。尚未实现的目标已纳入《国家转型战略》。这是一项为期七年的政府规划,将对接卢旺达的《2020愿景》和《2050愿景》。该“战略”将为今后几十年的持续增长和变革奠定基础,加速卢旺达人民获得高生活水平的进程,这也是《2050愿景》的目标。

根据《2050愿景》,卢旺将在2035年成为中高收入国家,到2050年成为高收入国家。我们的目标是到2030年消除贫困,人均GDP到2035年达到4036美元,到2050年增至12476美元。这就需要卢旺达在未来30年保持10%的年增长率。也许很多人认为这是不可能的,但是卢旺达已经向世界证明,有了正确的领导和发展思路,一切都是有可能的。

优化营商环境 

对卢旺达的营商环境,大使阁下充满自信地说,在世界银行发布的《全球营商环境报告2020》中,卢旺达排在第38位,是前50名中唯一的低收入经济体。该报告显示,卢旺达的营商便利度在东非排名第一,在整个非洲排名第二。

为了吸引更多的外国直接投资并创造良好的营商环境,政府决定成立卢旺达发展委员会,提供一站式的服务,及时发布投资者相关的决策,实施改革,优化商业环境。

卢旺达发展委员会将所有相关机构整合起来,有负责商业登记、投资/出口促进、企业私有化的机构,也有负责信息通讯技术、旅游业、中小私企及其人力资源开发的专门机构。这样,投资者办事只需要去这一个机构,能够提高政府工作效率,节约政府资金。我们会对满足一定条件的企业免除企业所得税,包括它们的总部或区域办事处设在卢旺达,有形或无形资产总额不低于1000万美元,为卢旺达人提供培训等。卢旺达是非洲最安全的国家,可以确保投资者的人身和财产安全。投资者对自己的财产有绝对的所有权,卢旺达的投资法规对保护投资者的资金、资产知识产权等有明确规定。

我们制定了《卢旺达制造政策》,根据该政策,制造业公司所有的进口原材料和主要机械设备都可免除增值税和进口税,供出口加工区使用的产品可免征关税,资本和资产也可免费调回本国。

通过整合,卢旺达的投资者可充分利用庞大的区域市场。卢旺地理位置优越,直通四国,交通发达,辐射近6000万人的消费市场,从全国各地出发到首都基加利都仅需四小时。卢旺达是东非共同体和东南非共同市场的成员国,因此卢旺达的投资者可以直接触及4亿多人的市场。随着非洲大陆自由贸易区已协议正式生效,投资者现在可以拥有多达12亿人、GDP超过2.2万亿美元的市场。

拓展两国合作

关于卢旺达与中国的合作,詹姆斯·基莫尼奥大使说,在“一带一路”倡议和中非合作论坛(FOCAC)的框架下,卢旺达见证了90多个中国独资和合资企业的项目,总计约5亿美元,创造了一万多个就业岗位。目前,卢旺达有900多家中国公司,涵盖制造业,加工业,房地产业,采矿业,旅游业等各个领域。在贸易方面,卢旺达与中国的双边贸易有所增长,卢旺达主要向中国出口矿产,咖啡、茶、辣椒、甜叶菊等农产品,兽皮和皮革等动物产品。从中国进口的产品包括电子产品、机器、服装、建筑材料、加工食品等。

卢旺达的良好商业环境促使阿里巴巴集团等一些知名的公司通过eWTP(电子世界贸易平台)与卢旺达合作,中国民营企业C&H Garments在卢旺达建立了一家制衣厂,中国安徽天康集团在卢旺达成立医疗科技公司等。

我们希望在各个领域加强双边合作,这也是两国领导人的共识。卢旺达与中国已建交48年,双边关系在现在达到了最高水平。良好的关系为中国公司在卢旺达投资兴业及打入区域市场带来了机会。同时,卢旺达的产品也有机会进入世界上最大的市场,且出口量有所增加。未来,两国在医疗、能源、教育等多领域合作将有更多机遇。

习近平主席关于合作共赢、共同发展的愿景不仅仅是一句空话,它是真实的,并且在推动中非关系快速发展过程中发挥着切实的作用。卢旺达高度珍视合作共赢的伙伴关系。



英文版


Access to Regional Market Begins with Rwanda

——Interview with H.E.James Kimonyo, Rwanda's Ambassador to China

By Zhang Mei

In January, H.E.James Kimonyo, Rwanda's new Ambassador to China, said in an interview with the reporter that “The good relations with the People’s Republic of China have brought opportunities for Chinese companies to invest and do business in Rwanda and access the regional market. Rwandan exporters also have access to the biggest market in the world and we are seeing an increase of Rwandan products being exported to China. Opportunities are in several sectors including manufacturing, processing, health, energy, education, etc.

According to Rwandan media reports, experts predict that the annual growth rate of the economy in 2019 is expected to reach 10%.

James Kimonyo said that indeed the Economy of Rwanda is on course to surpass the 8.5 per cent growth rate projected in November this year by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). We recorded a growth of 11.9 per cent in the period between July and September 2019, with an increase of the value of all finished goods and services produced in Rwanda.

The rapid economic growth is due to the growth in service sector, industries and reform undertaken in agriculture. The numbers show that the services sector contributed the largest share of 49 per cent of GDP while the agricultural sector contributed 27 per cent and the industrial sector contributed 17 per cent. 

The service sector grew by 13 per cent, driven by an increase of 25 per cent in wholesale and retail trade activities of locally made and imported products, 18 per cent in transport services due to RwandAir expansion of its routes, 9 per cent in financial services. The agriculture sector grew by 8 per cent with food crops and exports crops such as tea and coffee increasing their contribution to GDP.Industry sector growth was 14 per cent with the main contributors being construction activities and manufacturing activities growing.

In 2020 Rwanda marks the end of Vision 2020.

The Ambassador told reporters that Vision 2020 was a reflection of our aspiration and determination as Rwandans, to build a united, democratic and inclusive Rwandan identity, after so many years of authoritarian and exclusivist dispensation. The vision had as main pillars the establishment of good governance and a capable state, human resource development to build a knowledge-based economy, building a private sector-led economy, infrastructure development, developing a productive and market-oriented agriculture, increasing regional and international economic integration.

The achievements have been surprising to many; with Rwanda realizing rapid economic growth and macroeconomic stability. Since the launch of Vision 2020 in 2000, the GDP of the country has grown from $1.73 billion in 2000 to $10.21 billion in 2019.

Private sector investments have been a key driver of growth and development and the government has continuously made reforms to facilitate private sector growth, developing infrastructure, making it easy to access finance and to do business.

We have increasing the proportion of the budget financed from domestic resources as opposed to external loans and grants. In 2018/19 more than 84% of our national budget came from domestic resources, when in 2005 it was only 55%.

The goals we set for ourselves have been achieved to an extent of more than 85%. The targets which have not yet been achieved have been integrated in the National Strategy for Transformation (NST1). The National Strategy for Transformation is a Seven Year Government Programme (7YGP) which will see the crossover from Vision 2020 towards Vision 2050. This strategy is expected to lay the foundations for decades of sustained growth and transformation that will accelerate the move towards achieving high standards of living for all Rwandans, which is the goal of Vision 2050.

Vision 2050 targets Rwanda to become an upper-middle income country by 2035 and a high-income country by 2050. We target to eliminate poverty by 2030, reach a GDP per capita of USD $4,036 by 2035 and USD $12,476 by 2050. This will require a sustained 10 per cent of annual economic growth for the next 30 years. This might seem impossible to many but as Rwanda has shown that with good leadership and right mindsets, anything is possible.

Regarding Rwanda's business environment, the Ambassador said that today Rwanda, at 38th rank, is the only Low-Income Country in the top 50 of the 2020 World Bank Ease of Doing Business Report. According to this World Bank Report, Rwanda is ranked No.1 in East Africa and 2nd in the whole Africa in ease of doing business.

In order to attract more FDI and create a good business environment, the Government took a decision to establish the Rwanda Development Board, as a one stop institution to provide key services, and expedite decisions affecting investors as well as reforms for a very conducive business environment.

The establishment of Rwanda Development Board brought all the agencies responsible for business registration, investment/export promotion, privatization and specialist agencies which support the priority sectors of ICT and tourism as well as SMEs and human capacity development in the private sector all under one roof. This meant less legwork for investors as they had one major institution to work with, as well as time and financial savings for the Government.

The Government also put in place a number of fiscal and non-fiscal incentives, making Rwanda one of the best places to invest and do business, the best place to set up a factory and sell Made in Rwanda products. Among other incentives we can cite 0% corporate income tax (CIT) for companies which have their headquarters or regional office in Rwanda and fulfill a number of requirements like investment of at least $10M in tangible/intangible assets and providing training to Rwandans. With Rwanda being the safest country in Africa, the investor’s safety and the safety of their property is guaranteed. Investors have the right to own property and Rwanda’s investment code has articles protecting investors’ capital, assets, intellectual property rights, etc.

We have a Made in Rwanda Policy where companies operating in the manufacturing sector are exempt from paying VAT and import duty on all imports of raw materials and capital machinery, there is an exemption of customs tax for products used in Export Processing Zones, there is free repatriation of capital and assets, etc. Investor’s in Rwanda get to enjoy the huge regional market. Rwanda has strategic access to four countries and a catchment area of a consumer market of nearly 60 million people reachable by road, barely four hours away from Kigali in all directions. With Rwanda being part of the East African Community and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, investors in Rwanda have direct access to a market of more than 500 million people. And with the African Continental Free Trade Area which has already come into force, now you can access a market of 1.3 billion people with a collective GDP of more than $2.2 trillion.

Regarding the cooperation between Rwanda and China, the Ambassador said that under the Belt and Road Initiative and the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), Rwanda has registered more than 90 investments projects from China and China joint ventures worth about 500 Million USD, creating more than 10,000 jobs. Currently we have more than 900 Chinese companies doing business in Rwanda in various sectors including manufacturing, processing, real estate, mining, tourism, etc. In trade, we have seen increase in imports and exports between Rwanda and China, with Rwanda exporting to China minerals, agriculture products like coffee, tea, chili, stevia, animal products like skins and hides, etc. The imports from China cover a whole range of sectors, with electronic products, machinery, clothing, construction materials, processed food, etc.

The good business environment in Rwanda is what led some of the largest companies like Alibaba Group to partner with Rwanda through eWTP (Electronic World Trade Platform), C&H Garments established a garment factory which has created many jobs and exporting products in many european countries, Tiankang Group established medical technology factories, etc.

We hope to see increased cooperation in all sectors, as it is the vision of the leaders of both countries. Rwanda and China established diplomatic ties 48 years ago and currently the relationship is at its highest. The good relations have brought opportunities for Chinese companies to invest and do business in Rwanda and access the regional market. Rwandan exporters also have access to the biggest market in the world and we are seeing an increase of Rwandan products being exported to China. Opportunities are in several sectors including manufacturing, health, energy, education, etc. His Excellency President Xi Jinping’s vision on win-win cooperation and shared future is not just a slogan; it is real and it is happening. This is a partnership that we highly cherish.

编辑 | 张梅

翻译|苗佳雨

设计 |高蕊