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捷克:服务业需求超过制造业

捷克:服务业需求超过制造业

 文|杨·扎普莱托(Jan Zapletal)  捷克国家投资局中国及东南亚业务总监    翻译|王晓波


  导 读 

捷克正在开启一种新的、高附加值的经济增长模式,因此,近年来捷克在技术研发和服务行业的投资超过制造业。重点领域有汽车工业、电子工业、新材料、纳米技术、航空航天工业、环境保护和生命科学

● 投资优势

● 投资趋势:服务业的需求超过制造业

● 对外投资的保护措施

● 鼓励投资的优惠政策

● 捷克总统: 将积极参与一带一路建设

中国在捷克的投资

● 成功案例

捷克共和国虽然是一个小国,人口只有约1000万,但由于其在中东欧地区所处的重要地理位置和其经济实力,它在该地区仍然发挥着不可或缺的作用。

捷克拥有非常成熟的议会民主制度,是中东欧发达的国家之一。它实施的经济政策也是可持续的。

目前,捷克是中国在中东欧地区的第二大贸易伙伴,同时中国一直是捷克在欧盟以外最大的贸易伙伴。开放的投资环境是捷克经济的一大特点。从上世纪90年代开始,捷克已经吸引到了大量的外商直接投资(FDI),使其成为了中东欧人均吸引外资最多的国家。捷克在国际信用评级机构获得的投资评级以及它很早就加入联合国经合组织(OECD)都证明了其良好的经济基础。

根据世界经济论坛发布的2017-2018年全球竞争力报告,捷克的竞争力在世界137个国家中排名第31位。

捷克具备外商直接投资所需条件,通货膨胀率低,利率适度,货币稳定,经济增长率一直保持在良好的水平。

投资优势

● 位居欧洲中部,相较于欧盟中的西部国家,有着更具竞争力的成本优势;

● 具备创新与应用研究的能力;

● 透明的投资激励政策;

● 高技能、高素质的劳动力人口;

● 完善的供应和采购网络;

● 多家国际知名大型公司入驻;

● 工业历史悠久,基础雄厚;

● 捷克投资署的大力支持;

● 高品质的生活;

投资趋势:服务业的需求超过制造业

近几年外资对捷克的直接投资结构发生了重大变化,预计未来这一趋势会变得更加明显。捷克正在开启一种全新的、高附加值的经济增长模式,因此,近年来捷克在技术研发和服务行业的投资超过了对制造业的投资。捷克经济发展的重点领域有汽车工业、电子工业、新材料、纳米技术、航空航天工业、环境保护和生命科学。

捷克有非常雄厚的工业基础,工业产值占国内生产总值的65%。捷克制造的产品中大约有85%都用于出口,主要销往德国,它是捷克重要的经济伙伴。
捷克在无人驾驶和人工智能领域处于国际领先地位;网络安全技术也很先进,阿瓦斯特软件公司拥有全球三分之一的市场份额;生命科学(隐形眼镜是捷克发明的)、纳米技术(从利用纳米技术专业化指标看,捷克在这一领域位居世界第四,排在它前面的国家有美国、日本、德国和韩国)等前沿科技都居于世界前列。

去年,捷克新成立了41个研发中心,总投入相当于210亿元人民币。

许多大型国际公司都在捷克投资建设研发中心,包括霍尼韦尔公司、通用电气航空公司、宝马等许多其他公司。

对外投资的保护措施

捷克是多边投资担保机构(MIGA)的成员国,这是一个保护投资的国际组织,隶属于世界银行集团。捷克与包括中国在内的一些国家签署了双边条约,旨在鼓励和保护境外投资。捷克还与其他国家签署了避免双重征税的协定。

捷克是货币自由流通的国家,所有与投资有关的资金(比如利润和特许使用费)均可自由汇兑。中国投资者与捷克投资者享有同等待遇,可以在捷克境内不受任何限制地获得不动产。

鼓励投资的优惠政策

捷克政府对新老投资者均提供项目投资额25%的补贴,以鼓励本国及外国投资者开建新厂或对现有工厂进行升级换代。其中有些项目,如成立研发中心、创新项目以及信息技术和软件开发,还可以得到欧盟结构基金的支持。

对于以下领域的投资,有关的激励措施包括税收优惠、发放创造就业补助金、资本投资时给予现金奖励和在项目立项或扩建时提供优惠的财产税:

● 制造业;

● 技术中心;

● 业务支持服务中心——软件开发中心、共享服务中心、高科技维修中心、数据中心和客户支持中心(呼叫中心)。

捷克总统: 将积极参与一带一路建设

捷克完全拥护一带一路倡议。捷克总统米洛什·泽曼先生说,捷克非常欢迎中国企业来捷克投资和兴办企业,希望进一步加强两国政府的对话和协调,同时捷克也愿意积极参与一带一路的建设。2018年中国国际进口博览会在上海举办期间,两国领导人曾五次会面。习近平主席对捷克总统说,中国期待捷克继续为中欧关系发展做出贡献,中国愿意与捷克在中国与中东欧国家合作框架内深化合作,共同维护建设开放型世界经济。两国领导人都对单边主义和保护主义表达了坚决反对的立场。

中国在捷克的投资

捷克共和国总统米洛什·泽曼先生曾经说,捷克是中国在欧洲投资的不沉之船,并且是通往欧洲市场的最佳通道。

在捷克12个拥有境外投资的产业中,汽车零部件投资占30.3%,而且投资额在2016年时达到了峰值,涉及到4个项目。这一行业创造了2340个就业机会,获得的投资额高达2.4439亿欧元。其它行业仍有许多新项目需要投资,包括电子行业、人工智能、5G网络开发等。

成功案例

长虹在捷克的投资项目。2007年四川长虹电子公司(位于中国,绵阳)在布拉格附近的宁布尔克市对消费电子产品进行了投资,主要是电视机的组装。在对捷克市场有了深入了解并且积累了一定经验后,长虹又升级了设备,将针对整个欧洲市场开发新产品,同时更加重视售后服务的改进。该公司目前有300名员工在捷克工作,投资额达到了近3800万欧元。

长虹欧洲分公司总经理连永平先生这样说:“长虹之所以选择在捷克投资是因为看重它深厚的工业基础、优越的地理位置以及劳动力成本的竞争优势。我们知道捷克是一个小国,但我们相信通过它我们可以服务拥有5亿消费者的整个欧洲市场。

亚普捷克汽车公司。亚普汽车系统有限公司是全球燃料系统供应商,重点专注于汽车燃油系统的研发、制造和销售。

亚普汽车零部件有限公司(扬州,中国)于2012年在捷克马拉达博莱斯拉市投资兴建了亚普捷克汽车系统公司,使其成为它的一个子公司。这是它在国外投资的第一个生产汽车零部件的项目。

亚普捷克汽车系统公司作为中国全资的塑料油箱制造商的子公司在步入正常经营后又添置了新的生产设备,进一步扩大了生产规模和产量。

亚普汽车系统有限公司副总裁崔龙峰说,“我们选择捷克作为我们在欧洲的生产基地出于许多考虑,其中主要原因是我们认为它距离我们在德国的重要客户非常近,而且捷克从事汽车零部件生产已经有很长的历史,产品质量也很高。捷克政府对我们在这里投资建厂也非常支持,给予了很大的帮助。这使得我们的经营从一开始就非常顺利,因此我们决定进一步扩大生产规模。”

2016年,富士康作为鸿海精密工业公司的子公司入驻捷克。富士康作为鸿海精密工业公司的子公司在捷克库特纳霍拉市投资了一个制造项目,生产电子元件。

富士康是一个消费电子产品制造商,它打算扩大其在捷克库特纳霍拉市的工厂规模。它将再投资20亿元人民币,并创造2000个就业岗位。投资不仅包括帕杜比斯和库特纳霍拉的工厂,还包括之前已经宣布的数据中心和研发中心。

文  | 杨·扎普莱托(Jan Zapletal)  捷克国家投资局中国及东南亚业务总监

翻译 | 王晓波

编辑 | 张    梅

设计 | 姜灵枝



英文版:



Czech Republic: Demand for services exceeds manufacturing

 By Mr. Jan Zapletal    Director of China and South-East Asia Operations for Czechinvest



Although
a small country, with a population of about 10 million, the Czech
Republic has a decisive role in Central and Eastern Europe concerning
its geographic location and economic strength.

The
Czech Republic is a fully fledged parliamentary democracy and one of
the most advanced among CEE countries. Its economic policy is consistent
and predictable. 

Currently,
the Czech Republic is the second biggest trading partner of China in
the Central and Eastern European region, and China has been the Czech
Republic's largest trading partner outside the European Union.

An
open investment climate is a key element of the Czech Republic’s
economy. The Czech Republic has attracted a large amount of foreign
direct investment (FDI) since 1990, making it the most successful CEE
country in terms of FDI per capita. 

The
country’s investment grade ratings from international credit-rating
agencies and its early membership in the OECD testify to its positive
economic fundamentals. 

According
to the 2017- 2018 Global Competitiveness Report published by the World
Economic Forum, the Czech Republic ranks 31st among 137 world economies
in terms of competitiveness.

The
Czech Republic is characterized as a mature host country for FDI with
low inflation, modest interest rates, a stable currency and a good rate
of economic growth providing favorable conditions for investors. 

Summary of the key advantages of the Czech

• Central Location with very competitive costs in comparison to western EU countries

• Innovation & applied research capacities

• Transparent investment incentive policy

• Highly skilled, high-quality pool of labor talents

• A well-developed supplier base

• Strong presence of major leading international companies

• Long Industrial tradition

• Support from the CzechInvest

• Superior quality of life

FDI Trend in the Czech : Services Surpass Manufacturing

The
structure of FDI inflow into the Czech Republic has been changing
substantially and the trend is expected to strengthen in the coming
years. The Czech Republic is experiencing the introduction of a new,
very valuable type of economy, as investments in research and
development and business support services in the country have outweighed
those in manufacturing projects in recent years.

Key
sectors of Czech economy are automotive industry, electronic industry,
new materials, nanotechnology, aerospace industry, environmental
protection and life science.

Industrial
heritage of the country is strong and still forms Czech economy. 65 %
of GDP comes from the industry.  Roughly 85 % of Czech production is
being exported, mainly to Germany which is the main economic partner of
the Czech Republic. 

Czech
Republic is very advanced in autonomous driving and artificial
intelligence (word Robot being of the Czech origin), very strong in
cyber security (Company AVAST has one third of global market share),
life science (contact lenses are Czech invention), nanotechnology (using
a breakdown index of Nanotechnology Specialization, the Czech Republic
is on the 4th place in the world; compared to China, Japan, Germany,
Korea, UK, and USA, the Czech Republic comes 3rd just after Korea (USA
is the leading country)) and many others. 

In the last years 41 new R&D centers have been established in the Czech Republic with total cost of 21 billion Yuan. 

Huge international companies invested in Czech in R&D projects, namely Honeywell, GE Aviation, BMW and many others. 

Investment Protection

The
Czech Republic is a member of the Multilateral Investment Guarantee
Agency (MIGA), an international organisation for protection of
investments, which is part of the World Bank-IMF group. The country has
signed a number of bilateral treaties which support and protect foreign
investments with China. The Czech Republic has also concluded agreements
for the avoidance of double taxation.

The
Czech crown is fully convertible. All international transfers (e.g.
Profits and royalties) related to an investment can be carried out
freely and without delay. Chinese legal entities may acquire real estate
in the Czech Republic without any restrictions and under the same
conditions as Czech legal entities. 

Financial Support for Investment

The
Czech Republic offers both new and existing investors support covering
up to 25% of costs associated with investment projects. Aid is provided
mainly from the national investment-incentives scheme. Certain
activities, for example establishment of R&D centres, innovation
activities and ICT and software development, can be also supported from
EU Structural Funds.

Investment
incentives are offered in forms of tax incentives, job-creation grants,
cash grants for capital investments or property-tax incentive for
establishment or expansion of projects in the following areas: 

Manufacturing;Technology
centres; Business support services centres – software-development
centres, shared-services centres, high-tech repair centres, data centres
and customer support centres (call centres)

Belt and Road

Moreover,
the Czech has fully pledged to the Belt and Road initiative. Czech
President, Mr. Milos Zeman said the Czech welcomes Chinese enterprises
to invest and start new businesses and is willing to further enhance
dialogue and coordination between the two governments and actively take
part in the Belt and Road construction. During the CIIE in Shanghai in
2018, both presidents have met 5 times. Xi said China looks forward to
Czech Republic’s continuing contribution to the development of
China-Europe relationship and is willing to enhance cooperation with the
Czech under the framework of China-CEEC cooperation and jointly
safeguard and build an open world economy. Both presidents also fully
expressed their firm opposition to unilateralism and protectionism.

Chinese investment in the Czech 

To
quote president of the Czech Republic, Mr. Miloš Zeman, Czech Republic
is becoming an unsinkable ship of the Chinese investment in Europe and
Czech is a perfect gateway to European market. 

Out
of a total of 12 sectors, Automotive Components accounted for 30.3% of
projects. Project volume in this sector peaked during 2016, with four
projects tracked. Total jobs creation and capital investment in this
sector was 2,340 jobs and EUR 244.39 million respectively.But there are
many new projects in various sectors covering areas of electronics,
artificial intelligence, development of 5G network and many others. 

Several Case Studies. Changhong’s
investment project in Czech: Sichuan Changhong Electronics (Mianyang,
China) is invested in the city of Nymburk nearby Prague already in 2007,
in the Consumer Electronics with focus on both assembly of the
television sets. After gaining more experience at the Czech market
company has upgraded the facility and will develop new products for the
European market and focus on the improvement of after-sales services.
The company has 300 employees and investment was around 38 mil EUR.

Why
Changhong values Czech Republic is because of its profound industrial
base, superior location and labor cost advantage. Even though we know
that Czech Republic is a small country, but we also believe Czech
Republic is the  gate for us to serve the 500 million population of
whole European market.” Mr.Lian Yongping, General Manager of Changhong
Europe.

YAPP CZECH AUTOMOTIVE Co., s.r.o.YAPP
Automotive Systems Co., Ltd is a global fuel system supplier
specialized in R&D, manufacturing and marketing of automotive fuel
systems: Yapp Czech Automotive Systems, a subsidiary of YAPP Automotive
Parts (Yangzhou, China) invested in 2012 in the city of Mlada Boleslav,
Czech Republic in the Automotive Components sector in a Manufacturing
project which was their first. Yapp Czech Automotive Systems, a
subsidiary of China-based plastic fuel tank manufacturer YAPP Automotive
Parts, expanded their operations with a new production facility in
Mlada Boleslav, Czech Republic. They manufacture plastic fuel tanks
which are highly . There were many reasons why we chose Czech Republic
as our production facility in Europe. Key factors which we considered
were proximity to our key clients in Germany, long tradion in automotive
field and high quality of the workforce in the Czech Republic.
Government support from the CzechInvest proved to be a great help with
the successful start of the operations and we the further expansion of
our activities.“  Cui Long Feng,  Vice President of YAPP Automotive
Systems, Co.

2016 – Foxconn, a subsidiary of Hon Hai Precision Industry into Czech. Foxconn, a subsidiary of Hon Hai Precision Industry invested in the
city of Kutna Hora, Czech Republic in the Electronic Components sector
in a Manufacturing project.

Foxconn,
a consumer electronics manufacturer and a subsidiary of Hon Hai
Precision Industry, plans to expand its plant in Kutna Hora, Czech
Republic. The firm will invest 2 billions of Yuan and create 2000 jobs
as part of an expansion of its business in the country, which includes
investments in Pardubice and Kutna Hora as well as previously announced
data centre and R&D centre projects.



Author | Zhang Mei 

Design | Jiang Lingzhi