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南非的投资机会



中国企业在南非的主要投资领域涉及采矿业,制造业,服务业,农业,酒店,高科技,制药等多个行业


文I查尔斯·曼纽埃尔  南非驻华商务公使衔参赞    翻译I 褚骁骥


自从1998年1月中国和南非建交以来,两国关系在2010年达到了“全面战略伙伴关系”的历史最高点。双方在双边关系,政治,经济,贸易等领域合作程度不断增长,这些都进一步加深了双方的关系。

在习近平主席于2015年12月对南非进行的国事访问中,双方在比勒陀利亚签署了价值460亿元人民币的二十六项协议,这份协议的签署将中国和南非的双边合作提升到了更高的水平。南非的国家元首承诺将执行该战略方案,并具体提到了六个优先发展的领域:

•  加快南非的工业化进程;

•  加强两国经济特区间的合作;

•  加强双方在海洋上的合作;

•  基础设施开发;

•  人力资源合作;

•  财务合作

中国企业在南非的主要投资领域涉及采矿业,制造业,服务业,农业,酒店,高科技,制药等多个行业。中国在南非的投资主要是制造业,中国在当地拥有200多家大型公司,并在全国拥有不到一千家较为活跃的中小企业。与公众设想不同的是,在南非进行投资的中国企业中,只有10%是国有企业,剩下的90%是民营企业。

现在,有超过30万的华人在南非定居,工作和学习。在所有能够被想到的经济领域,南非都持一贯的开放态度。南非以其稳定的国内政治局势,稳健的财务安全,透明且受到高度监管的银行业,而成为投资者们的天堂。在整个国家以及所有经济领域里,南非都有很多的机会等待着海外投资者。南非作为非洲大陆的代表性国家具有巨大的潜力。此外,通过南非,投资者可以很容易地加入到非洲国家以及东西方国家间的贸易体系中。

南非的技术型劳动力主要来自于不同类型的大学,职业院校和技术类院校,以及发达的企业培训部门。南非在许多领域中都取得了重要的创新成果,这些领域包括生物技术,纳米技术,氢燃料开发,传统医药以及运动科学等。

 

市场准入

南非在中美洲和南美洲国家间,南半球和东南亚新兴工业化国家间起贸易中转站的作用。南非的主要航运线沿南大西洋和印度洋海岸线。在南非,七个主要的商业港口构成了非洲最大的,设施最齐全的,效率最高的港口。自1994年签署全球关税和贸易协定以来,南非已成为全球贸易体系中的一员。南非通过与欧盟、南部非洲发展共同体签署的自由贸易协定以及执行和美国签署的“非洲增长与机遇法案”,而加强了本国的市场准入。

 

低廉的经营成本

南非较低的汇率水平使其成为海外人士生活,工作和经商成本最为低廉的国家之一。而它发达的国家基础设施和高水准的生活品质能够确保投资者的投资物有所值。南非的电力成本是全球最低的,而且就石油价格而言,南非对比其他国家也颇具优势。南非的劳动力成本与其他新兴国家相比具有优势。

 

工业能力与尖端科技

南非的制造业现在主要以技术密集型产业为主,高科技制造业在制造业生产中的份额越来越高。南非先后在能源,燃料,钢铁生产,深层采矿,电信和信息技术等领域发展出了一系列先进的技术。南非采取了“产业政策行动计划”,旨在推动形成一个能够长期促进国家工业化,超越传统商品以及非贸易服务的多元化产业结构基础。

 

对投资者的支持

南非贸易和工业部成立了“一站式服务”,作为所有外商直接投资的单一入口。建立“一站式服务”的目的是减少投资者的信息搜索量、交易成本以及政府的处理时间。来自不同领域的专家对南非各个行业都有明确的了解,他们能够将投资者的要求与南非九个省份的机会相匹配。

 

行业机会

矿产业和农业:南非拥有巨大的矿产储量,低廉的电力供应成本,世界一流的基础设施,不断发展的科技创新能力以及被认可的企业能力,在矿产和农业加工投入方面南非具有巨大的竞争优势。南非拥有世界上最大的铬矿,钒矿,红柱石和锰矿石储量。此外,它还拥有锑,石棉,钻石,煤,萤石,铁,铅,锌,磷酸盐,铀,蛭石,锆和储备量巨大的铂金资源。

农林水产业也为农业加工业的发展提供了丰富的资源,能够向中国出口一年四季的农产品。南非的主要农业产品包括了淡水养殖,海水养殖(鲍鱼,龙虾),外国肉类,坚果,草药和水果加工等。此外,南非还涉及落叶果树,红酒,糖果的生产和出口,以及天然纤维如棉花,大麻,剑麻,洋麻和菠萝的加工。

制造业:南非的制造业得到了健全的政策支持,这一政策就是“产业政策行动计划”。“产业政策行动计划”政策为南非高度发达而又具有多样性特点的制造业打下了基础。整体上而言,制造业产值占南非国内生产总值的15%。在南非,制造业由以下行业主导:

汽车工业:在南非,汽车制造业占全国制造业出口总量的10%。在未来,汽车制造及其零部件制造行业有望得到进一步发展。福特,北汽集团,一汽集团,宝马,大众,通用,梅赛德斯奔驰,丰田等汽车制造商均在南非拥有其生产基地。

化学工业:南非现在拥有非洲规模最大,最为复杂,也最为多元化的化学工业体系,其化工产品包括燃料、塑料加工以及药物生产。

信息通信技术与电子技术:过去十年来,南非的信息技术产业呈现出惊人的增长态势。南非拥有先进的信息和通信技术,已形成了发达的电子产业,南非的电子产业由3000多家公司组成。南非信息技术产业的特点是其拥有处于世界领先地位的技术,特别是在移动软件和电子银行服务领域。

金属工业:由于其丰富的自然资源,南非拥有发达的金属工业,在全国制造业中的占比可达三分之一。南非的金属工业强调选矿的重要性,南非是非洲大陆最大的钢铁生产国之一,其有色金属行业由铝,铜,黄铜,铅,锌和锡组成。这些金属材料将会被投入到南非的交通设备,机械设备以及其他生产设备的制造上。

绿色产业:南非政府所支持的综合资源计划(IRP 2010-2030)推动了该国可再生能源的增长。南非重视以下科技的发展:太阳能光伏,离岸风能,生物质能,小型水力发电,光伏发电和填埋气。南非的公用事业部门是该地区最成熟的,这也为那些希望能够进入其他领域的投资者搭建了一个有效的平台。

石油和天气然:南非的油气上游产业虽然还处于初始阶段,但却拥有发展较为成熟的中游和下游产业。最近在莫桑比克,安哥拉和坦桑尼亚发现的天然气资源能够为南非和其他非洲国家提供巨大的发展机会。考虑到南非在工业上具有的优势,相对多元化的产业结构,制造技术含量较高的商品的能力以及与非洲其他国家间达成的双边协议,南非对天然气的需求量在不断增大,并且天然气在南非的发展也具有巨大的潜力。

金融领域:南非的金融业主要由数十家分布在南非国内以及海外的金融机构所构成,这些金融机构提供商业咨询,零售、银行,抵押贷款,保险和投资等全方位服务。南非的银行体系是较为发达并且得到有效监管的,与其他工业化国家的银行体系相比,南非的银行体系是具有优势的。南非的主要银行如标准银行等在非洲大陆占有很大的市场份额。

南非之所以能够成为世界上最受欢迎的贸易和投资目的地之一,其主要原因在于南非能够满足潜在投资者的特定贸易和投资需求。南非制定的许多鼓励投资的激励性措施以及其所设置的经济特区都能够促进本国的商业活动,并且有利于进一步扩大南非在国际贸易上的增长水平。

南非无与伦比的自然风光以及享誉世界的投资性价比,使其成为一个有吸引力的休闲和商务旅游目的地。

海洋经济:在2010年,海洋经济为南非国内生产总值贡献了近270亿元人民币,创造出大约31.6万个就业岗位。到2033年,海洋经济有望为南非国内生产总值贡献885亿元人民币,创造出80万至100万个直接就业的机会。海洋经济在为南非国内生产总值所作出的贡献以及创造就业机会方面的年增长率至少将达到4%。

通过以下四个领域来挖掘南非海洋经济的潜力:

1.海运,海洋制造业:沿海航运制造业、海运中转站建设、船舶的制造,修理以及翻新。

2. 海上油气勘探

3. 水产养殖

4.海洋保护和治理

为了能够推进南非海洋经济的发展以及整个国家的价值,以上四个领域已经被选为南非海洋经济中的新增长点,而南非的包容性经济增长的目标也将会涉及到这四个重点领域。(编辑:常浩)

 



Investment Opportunities in  South Africa


By  Mr Charles Manuel, Economics  Minister  of the Embassy of The Republic of South Africa to China


Since South Africa and China established diplomatic relations in January 1998, relations between our two countries have achieved a historical pinnacle becoming a “comprehensive strategic partnership”in 2010. As a result of our  bilateral ties,cooperation in the political, economic, trade and other fields have  continued to grow,  further strengthening our relationship.

During the State visit by President XiJinping in December 2015 , Twenty six agreements worth Rmb 46 billion were signed at the Union Buildings in Pretoria, taking bilateral cooperation between China and South Africa to a higher level. Our Heads of State committed to the implementation of Strategic Programme with specific reference to six priority areas:

• Alignment of industries to accelerate South Africa’s industrialisation process;

• Enhancement of cooperation in Special Economic Zones (SEZs);

• Enhancement of marine cooperation;

• Infrastructure development

• Human Resources cooperation, and

• Financial cooperation.

Chinese companies are invested in a diverse range of sectors in SA such as Minerals beneficiation, manufacturing, services,agriculture , hospitality, advanced technology , pharmaceuticals etc. The bulk of China’s investment in South Africa is in the manufacturing sector with more than 200 large companies and just under 1000SME’s active in the country.Contrary to popular believe, only 10% of the Chinese companies invested in SA are State Owned Companies, the bulk of the companies (90%) are privately owned.

More than 300 000 Chinese people live, work and receive education in South Africa. The country has always been open for business in every conceivable economic sector. With stable democratic government, sound financial security and a transparent and highly regulated banking sector, the country is a haven for investors.  Plenty of opportunities await international investors in all sectors of the economy and throughout the country. South Africa holds immense potential as a representative of the continent and offers easy access to inter-continental and East and West trade.

South Africa’s large skilled labour force comes from a variety of universities, vocational colleges and technical colleges as well as a well-developed corporate training sector. Important and innovative work is happening in a number of fields, including biotechnology, nano– technology, hydrogen fuel development, indigenous/traditional medicines, sports science and many more.

 

Access to markets

South Africa serves as a trans-shipment point between emerging markets of Central; and South America and the newly industrialised nations of South and Far East Asia. Major shipping lines pass along the South African coast line in the south Atlantic and Indian oceans. The country’s seven commercial ports form the largest, best equipped and most efficient on the continent. Since signing the Global Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in 1994, South Africa has become a player in the global trading system. Market access has been enhanced through free trade agreements with the European Union, MERCUSOR, the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) and the implementation of the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act by the United States.

 

Favourable cost of doing business

South Africa’s exchange rate makes it one of the least expensive countries for foreigners to live, work and do business in.  Its first world infrastructure and high living standards ensure good value for money. South Africa’s electricity costs are still among the lowest in the world and the country compares well with regards to petroleum prices. South Africa’s labour costs compares favourably to other emerging countries.

 

Industrial capability and cutting edge technology

The country’s manufacturing output is increasingly technology-intensive, with high technology manufacturing sectors enjoying a growing share of the total manufacturing production. The country has developed a number of leading technologies particularly in the fields of energy and fuels, steel production, deep-level mining, telecommunications and information technology. South Africa has adopted an Industrial Policy Action Plan which forms the foundation for promoting long –term industrialisation and diversification beyond traditional commodities and non-tradable services.

 

Investor support

The Department of Trade and Industry established a One- Stop Shop as a single point of entry for all Foreign Direct Investment. The purpose of a one stop shop facility is to reduce information search and transaction costs for investors and processing time for the government. Their sector specialists have a clear understanding of and access to South Africa’s various industries. They are able to match investor’ requirements with opportunities available in South Africa’s nine provinces.

 

SECTOR OPPORTUNITIES

Mineral and Agro-industry inputs :South Africa has the competitive advantage in the beneficiation of mineral and agri-processing inputs due to an immense concentration of reserves of important minerals, low cost of electricity supply, world class infrastructure with considerable capacity, a developed and skilled technology base and proven entrepreneurial abilities.  South Africa has the world’s largest reserves of chrome ore, vanadium, and andalusite and manganese ore. It also holds substantial reserves of antimony, asbestos,diamonds, coal, fluorspar, iron, lead, zinc, phosphates, uranium, vermiculite,zirconium, and platinum group metals.

The agriculture, forestry and fishing industries provide the growing agro-processing industries with an abundance of resources and are well positioned to export to China “in season and out of season”. The agriculture sector spans the processing of freshwater aquaculture and mariculture (abalone, lobster), exotic meats, nuts, herbs and fruit. It also involves the production and export of deciduous fruit and wine,confectionary and the processing of natural fibres such as cotton, hemp, sisal,kenaf and pineapple.

Manufacturing :The manufacturing sector in South Africa is supported by a sound policy: The Industrial Policy Action Plan.This policy forms the foundation of South Africa’s well developed and diversified manufacturing base. The overall manufacturing output accounts for 15% of GDP. Manufacturing is dominated by the following industries:

Automotive sector: The automotive industries account for 10% of South Africa’s manufacturing exports. The automotive and components industry is poised for growth. Vehicle manufacturers such as Ford, BAIC, FAW, BMW, Volkswagen, General Motors, Mercedes Benz and Toyota have production plants in the country.

Chemicals industry: South Africa’s chemicals industry, the largest on the continent is highly complex and widely diverse spanning fuel and plastics fabrication to pharmaceuticals.

ICT and Electronics: The country's information technology industry has shown phenomenal growth over the last decade. South Africa has an established and sophisticated indigenous information and communications technology (ICT) and electronics sector consisting of more than 3000 companies. The local IT industry is characterised by technology leadership, particularly in the field of mobile software and electronic banking services.

Metals industry: Due to its vast natural resources, the country has a well-developed metals industry which represents roughly a third of the country’s manufacturing. The country has a strong emphasis on mineral beneficiation. South Africa is one of the top steel producers on the continent and its non-ferrous metal industries comprise aluminium, copper, brass, lead, zinc and tin. These materials feed into the country’s dynamic transport equipment, machinery and capital equipment industries.

Green Industries: South Africa’s government supported Integrated Resource Plan (IRP 2010-2030), have provided a major boost to the growth of Renewable energy in the country. The focus is on the following generation technologies:  solar PV,onshore Wind, Biomass, small hydro, CSP and landfill gas. South Africa’s utility scale RE sector is the most mature in the region and therefore offers a useful platform for investors who want to venture into the rest of the region.

Oil and gas: South Africa has a nascent upstream industry but very well developed mid-stream and downstream operations.The recent discoveries of gas in Mozambique, Angola and Tanzania provide a huge opportunity for South Africa and the rest of the continent. South Africa also has high potential and increased demand for gas, coupled with industrial strength and relative diversity, technical commodity expertise and existing bilateral engagements across the region.

Financial sector: South Africa’s financial services sector boasts dozens of domestic and foreign institutions providing a full range of services including commercial, retail and merchant banking,mortgage lending, insurance and investment. The country’s banking system is well developed and effectively regulated and compares favourably with those in industrialised countries. Local banks such as Standard Bank South Africa have a large footprint on the African continent.

Some of the  main reasons for South Africa becoming one of the most popular trade and investment destinations in the world is due to the country ensuring that it can meet specific trade and investment requirements of prospective investors. South Africa has a host of investment incentives industrial financing interventions and Special Economic Zones that are aimed at encouraging commercial activity and its trade rules favour a further expansion in South Africa's burgeoning levels of international trade.

South Africa's unrivalled scenic beauty and reputation for delivering value-for money make it an attractive leisure and business travel destination.

Oceans Economy :In 2010 the Oceans Economy contributed approximately Rmb 27 billion to South Africa’s GDP and accounted for approximately 316,000 jobs. The ocean has the potential to contribute up to Rmb 88.5 billion to GDP and between 800 000 and 1 million direct jobs by 2033.These growth levers reflect at least 4 percent (4%) annual growth in both GDP contribution and job creation

The focus is to unlock the economic potential of South Africa’s oceans in four priority areas:

1. Marine Transport and manufacturing activities such as coastal shipping, trans-shipment, boat building, repair and refurbishment.

2. Offshore oil and gas exploration

3. Aquaculture

4. Marine protection services and ocean governance

The four focus areas have been selected as new growth areas in the Oceans Economy, with the objective of growing them and deriving value for the country. The objective of inclusive economic growth permeates all four focus areas.