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中非故事 | 产能合作:携手繁荣未来

产能合作:携手繁荣未来

 文 | 罗纳德·加藤(Ronald Kato)  乌干达《非洲新闻报》记者   

 翻译 | 周佳  

 编辑 | 裴安迪     

 设计 | 姜灵枝   

 制作 | 黄硕存


导读:与中国的产能合作使乌干达有机会提升在全球价值链中的地位,特别是在农产品加工业和工业领域。

● 中国是乌干达最大的海外投资来源国

辽沈工业园

中乌姆巴莱工业园

广州东送—苏库卢工业园

“中国与非洲致力于共同繁荣”

工业化正在不断推进

● 释放乌干达工业化潜力

● 更多工业园区亟待投资


在离乌干达首都坎帕拉30公里的一个村庄里,29岁的以马内利·基齐托正在监督建筑工人对他的两居室房子进行最后的修缮。“我和我的家人准备九月份搬进来”,基齐托说。

基齐托的这套房子靠的是他多年的打拼和积攒。“多亏了有这份工作,我才拥有了这房子。”他补充到,“如果不是我的老板,我会潦倒到一文不名。”

六年前,这个三个孩子的父亲开始在一家生产条钢和乳胶床垫的中国公司担任机器操作员。他每月挣得的160美元薪水让他能够养活自己的家人。在乌干达,月工资可能低到50美元,而且失业率还非常高。

“我觉得自己太幸运了。”基齐托声称,“我的许多同行可没我挣得这么多。”

现在,有成千上万的乌干达人受益于中国在乌日益增加的投资项目,尤其是在产能合作领域。基齐托正是其中之一。

中国是乌干达最大的海外投资来源国

根据乌干达中国企业商会的统计,乌干达有100多家中国公司,为4万多乌干达人提供了就业机会。据中国驻乌干达大使馆称,中国公司目前在乌干达的投资额为42亿美元(约合15.5万亿先令)。

“中国在乌干达的对外直接投资有助于促进增加乌干达国内生产总值、创造更多就业机会,同时有可能增加税收。”经济政策研究中心研究分析师马丁·路德·穆努表示,“我们需要将中国的对外直接投资更多地引入制造业,以便获得更多利益。”

分析师表示,为使乌干达的经济能够进一步受益于中国投资,乌干达必须修订其投资政策。

“此外,我们需要一个总体政策框架,以确保对外直接投资实现其在就业、税收、技术转让和整体结构转型方面的承诺。乌干达需要重新考虑现有投资政策为何阻碍了外国直接投资难以实现这些承诺。”穆努说。

辽沈工业园

辽沈工业园位于乌干达中部的卢韦罗,是辽宁省商务厅和省友协在非洲地区共同推进的首个省级境外经济贸易合作区项目。该工业园于今年2月由乌干达总统约韦里·穆塞韦尼揭牌。

辽沈工业园占地2.6平方公里,由乌干达张氏集团和辽宁中大集团两家民营企业投资兴建,总投资额约6亿美元。预计到2025年,辽沈工业园区将容纳50家企业,提供约1万6千个就业岗位。

辽沈工业园面向东非市场的需求,承诺将利用乌干达丰富的资源和优惠政策,以及辽宁省先进的生产技术和管理经验,打造成为一个国际化工业园区。

越来越多的农民开始放弃自给农业,乌干达希望该工业园能够有助于推动商业化农业的发展。据阿波罗·赛格瓦,该园区一经理称,辽沈工业园将促进农产品生产和创收。

工业园区主要从事汽车、汽车零部件、家用电器和建筑材料生产,以及食品加工、纺织和轻工业制造等业务。

该园始建于2015年。目前,园区的基础设施建设和项目推广工作仍在进行中。辽宁省许多工业项目,如康王陶瓷项目,河姆源食品项目和天宇新预制房屋项目,已于2017年1月9日在沈阳举行的项目签约仪式上确认了在辽沈工业园区的落户点。

中乌姆巴莱工业园

总投资额超过6亿美元(约2.2万亿先令)的工业园已于今年3月由穆塞韦尼总统奠基揭牌。此工业园预计将吸引55家工厂,为乌干达人创造1万5千个工作岗位。该园区位于姆巴莱区的Bukasakya子县。去年,由八家中国企业组成的财团和以张保罗先生为首的天唐集团签署协议,共同投资2.51平方公里的园区。这些公司将从事水果加工和饮料生产、大米加工和生产、卫生用品制造、木材加工和家具制造、玻璃制造、家用电器制造和太阳能系统制造等业务。

广州东送—苏库卢工业园

广州东送能源集团的6.2亿美元投资企业预计将在第一阶段创造1700多个就业岗位。该项目位于托罗罗区Rubongi和Osukuru两个子县,主要将磷酸盐加工成肥料和其他产品。

2013年,乌干达政府确认将苏库卢山的磷酸盐矿开采权交与广州东送能源集团有限公司。

苏库卢工业园区建成后将建设磷肥厂、钢厂、发电厂、硫酸厂和玻璃制造厂。工业园区建筑面积达26.47平方公里。

分析师表示,乌干达矿产资源和农产品的附加值应该是中国主导的工业园区的主要目标。

“中国已高度融入全球价值链,因此,乌干达与中国的产能合作使我们有机会提升在全球价值链中的地位,特别是农业、工业产品。棉花和纺织部门是乌干达可以向中国学习并寻求促进技术扩散以改变该国纺织工业的一个领域。这是因为我们将近95%的棉花作为棉绒出口,而中国的棉绒大部分在国内消化,只出口服装和服装成品。然而,这只能在我们制定和实施有利于促进技术转让和有效整合全球经济政策后才能实现,但目前却缺乏相关政策。”贸易和投资研究员穆努说。

“中国与非洲致力于共同繁荣”

33岁的伊丽莎白·那姆苏克在辽沈工业园的食品加工厂工作。在园区开放之前,那姆苏克失业了。她的丈夫是一位老师,用微薄的100美元工资支撑着这个家庭。

“我的薪水补充了我丈夫的工资,我们现在可以存下一小部分”,那姆苏克说。那姆苏克和她的丈夫在他们两英亩的土地上建了一个果园。他们希望可以向工业园的水果加工厂售卖芒果。

“现在中国正在通过更多的方式来支持非洲,尤其是乌干达。他们正在与非洲携手致力于实现共同繁荣。”总统说。

“乌干达希望与中国的产能合作能够为其农业出口提高附加价值。它希望成为以农产品加工为基础的制造业经济体”,乌干达经济政策研究中心研究分析师马丁·路德·穆努说。

工业化正在不断推进

穆塞韦尼总统在其2017年新年致辞中表示,乌干达经济长期呈现进口大于出口状况,导致巨大的贸易逆差。他说,现在是国家开始大规模实现工业化,不断为当地市场和出口生产产品的时候了。

他说,他的政府将开始推进大规模产业化进程,并指出“产业化是一种解放工具,是实现繁荣的手段”。

穆塞韦尼提到中国,他说,“中国出口到乌干达的货物价值8.75亿美元,从乌干达进口货物价值5470万美元,乌干达从印度进口价值11.54亿美元的货物,而只出口到印度价值2480万美元的商品。”他将贸易逆差称为金钱和工作岗位的大出血。

对于焊工摩西·图姆拉姆耶来说,辽沈工业园给予他的生意更多便利。这位28岁的年轻人过去忙于为顾客做门窗。他用来焊接的汽油发电机需要高昂的成本投入。

“工业园区将电力引入我工作的贸易中心。现在我不再需要购买发电机燃料,所以能获得点儿微薄的利润了”,图姆拉姆耶说。

释放乌干达工业化潜力

在2013年第五届东京非洲发展国际会议上,穆塞韦尼总统在发言中列出了基础设施发展不足,特别尤其是电力、铁路、公路、信息通信技术和未开发的人力资源等因素都阻碍了非洲,特别是乌干达的发展。

乌干达确定电力是产业化发展的主要瓶颈之一。2006年,当该国遭遇严重的电力短缺时,该国的产业工业化进程一度陷入了困境。结果,一些制造商转移到邻国肯尼亚和坦桑尼亚,以利用可靠和更便宜的电力资源。

自2006年以来,乌干达已投资30多亿美元用于能源项目。2012年,耗资9亿美元的布加哥利水电项目开通。它为国家电网增加了250兆瓦,为能源供应带来了必要的稳定性。随后几个小型水力发电厂的运转导致了产出能源过剩。

根据乌干达发电有限公司的说法,乌干达发电机所产的电力,也就是国家目前的发电容量是约862兆瓦——其中包括来自燃油发电机产出的100兆瓦——而国家实际上的有效需求只有600兆瓦,因此估计约有200兆瓦属于过剩产能。

然而,有关当局认为,在经济全面复苏的情况下,未来两年的过剩的电力将会被消化掉。乌干达电力分销商UMEME首席执行官Selestino Babungi表示,过剩现象不会持续很长的时间了。“供应应当先行于需求。事实上,基础设施和工业领域的投资者都非常关注未来五年是否有足够的电力供应。如果一个国家的电力供应不足的话,那就很难指望能够建立新的企业”,他解释道。

目前,该国中部和北部的两座水电站已接近完工。伊辛巴水电站(183兆瓦)和卡鲁马水电站(600兆瓦)分别由中国水利电力有限公司和中国水电建设集团承建中,建设费用高达约30亿美元,都是由中国进出口银行资助的。一旦投入使用后,这两个项目将使乌干达的装机容量达到1683兆瓦。

乌干达当局认为,在为全国各工业园区供电的过程中,多余的电力将很容易被消化掉。

更多工业园区亟待投资

乌干达投资管理局主责投资,他们刚刚完成了一个项目,通过对比相关地区与其他地区的比较优势来绘制该国的产业潜力图。

该机构采用了自动化驱动力来减少繁文缛节。这些工业园区包括坎帕拉工商园(占地2200英亩,靠近首都)、卢尼亚工商园、Bweyogerere工业园、金贾工商园、卡塞塞区工商园、索罗蒂工商园、姆巴拉拉中小企业园、Kashari农业园和姆巴莱工商园。

为进一步吸引投资,乌干达总统约韦里·穆塞韦尼已下令财政部规划委员会根据自然资源情况在主要城市规划和建立工业园区。该委员会已将该国西北地区确定为尼罗河谷的蜂蜜、水果、咖啡加工、纺织品和鱼类加工集散中心。兰戈的中北部地区已被规划用于容纳纺织品、木薯加工和油籽加工业的投资者。

穆努表示,随着乌干达开设更多的工业园,政府应该考虑与中国投资者合作,而不是将产业化留给私营部门。

“乌干达需要重新思考国家在工业发展中的作用。仅靠私营部门无法改变工业部门,因为一些关键投资不能带来快速回报,但这是私人投资的动力。”穆努称,“我们需要国家的直接干预和深思熟虑的公私合作计划,以确保风险和利润得到公平分摊。”


英文版:

China-Uganda Industrial Capacity Cooperation

Author |  Ronald Kato,  Journalist of Africanews in  Uganda

Design | Jiang Lingzhi

Production | Huang Shuocun


● China is Uganda’s largest source of foreign investment

Liaoshen  Industrial park

Sino-Uganda Mbale Industrial Park

Guangdong Dongsong-Sukuru Industrial park

"China working with Africa for mutual prosperity"

Industrialization is liberating 

Unlocking Uganda’s potential to industrialize

More industrial parks for investors


In a village 30km from Uganda’s capital Kampala, 29-year-old Emmanuel Kizito is supervising builders putting the final touches to his two bedroom house. “I want to move in with my family in September”, Kizito says.

Kizito’s house is the product of years of sacrifice and savings. “I owe this house to my job. I would be so broke without a single asset if it wasn’t for my employer”, he added.

Six years ago, the father of three started working as a machine operator at a Chinese company which makes steel bars and foam mattresses. His $160 salary means he can provide for his family. In Uganda, wages can be as low as $50 a month and unemployment is rampant. 

“I consider myself lucky. Many of my peers are not doing as good as I am”, Kizito asserts.

Kizito is of the tens of thousands of Ugandans benefiting from increased Chinese investment in Uganda, particularly in the area of industrial capacity cooperation. 

China is Uganda’s largest source of foreign investment

According to the Chinese Enterprises Chamber of commerce in Uganda, there are over 100 Chinese companies in Uganda. These has provided jobs to over 40,000 Ugandans. Chinese companies now have invested worth $4.2b (sh15.5 trillion) in Uganda, according to China’s embassy in Uganda.

“Chinese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Uganda helps in facilitating growth-increased GDP, employment opportunities and potentially increasing the tax revenues. We need to channel Chinese FDIs more into manufacturing in order to harness more benefits”, said Martin Luther Munu, a research analyst at the Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC).

Analysts say for Chinese investments to further benefit the Ugandan economy, Uganda has to make more investment policy amendments.

“In addition, we need an overall policy framework which ensures that FDI realizes its promises of jobs, tax revenues, technological transfer and overall structural transformation. This requires Uganda to rethink its investment policies which currently makes it hard for FDIs to realise these promises”, said Munu.

Liaoshen  Industrial park 

Liaoshen Industry Park, which is located at Luwero in central Uganda, is the first provincial-level economic and trade cooperation zone project in Africa with the backing of the Commerce Department of Liaoning province and Liaoning People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries.

The park was inaugurated by Uganda’s president Yoweri Museveni in February this year.

Covering an area of 2.6 square kilometers, Liaoshen Industry Park received investment from two private businesses –– China’s Zhongda Group and Uganda’s Zhang Group –– and total investment in the industrial park is around $600 million. It is anticipated that Liaoshen Industry Park will contain 50 businesses and create around 16,000 jobs by 2025.

Geared to the needs of the East African market, Liaoshen Industry Park promises to take advantage of rich resources and preferential policies in Uganda, along with advanced production technology and management experience from Liaoning province to build itself into an international industrial park.

Uganda hopes that the centre will help boost commercial agriculture as farmers begin to abandon subsistence farming. According to Apollo Ssegawa, a manager at the facility, the Liaoshen industrial park will add much needed value to farm produce.

The industrial park mainly house businesses involved in the manufacturing of automobiles, auto parts, household appliances, building materials, food processing, textiles and light industry.

Construction of the park began in 2015.Currently, the construction of infrastructure and project promotional work at the park is still ongoing. Many of Liaoning province’s industrial projects, such as Kangwang ceramics project, Hemuyuan food project and Tianyuxin prefab house project, affirmed their settlement in Liaoshen Industry Park at a signing ceremony for the project held in Shenyang on Jan 9 2017.

Sino-Uganda Mbale Industrial Park

The park with a total investment of more than $600m (about Shs2.2 trillion) was inaugurated by president Museveni in March. It is expected to house 55 factories and create 15,000 jobs for Ugandans. It is located in Bukasakya Sub-county in Mbale District. 

A consortium of eight Chinese enterprises last year signed agreements with Tian Tang Group headed by Mr Paul Zang, to invest in the park which measures 2.51 square kilometers.

The companies will do fruit processing and beverage production, rice processing and production, sanitation supplies manufacturing, wood processing and furniture manufacturing, glass manufacturing, household appliances manufacturing and solar energy systems, among others.

Guangdong Dongsong-Sukuru Industrial park

The U.S. $620m venture by Guangzhou Dongsong Energy Group, is expected to create over 1,700 jobs in its first phase. Located in the sub-counties of Rubongi and Osukuru in Tororo district, the project will process phosphates into fertiliser and other products.

In 2013, the Ugandan government awarded a mining lease to Guangzhou Dongsong Energy Group Company Ltd to mine phosphates in Sukuru hill.

Once completed, the Sukuru industrial complex will house a phosphate fertiliser plant, a steel mill, a power plant, sulphuric acid factory and a glass making plant. The industrial park is being built on 26.47 square kilometres of land.

Analysts say value addition to Uganda’s mineral wealth and agricultural products should be the key goal of Chinese-led industrial parks.

“China is highly integrated in the Global Value Chains (GVCs). Uganda's industrial capacity cooperation with China therefore gives us an opportunity to upgrade in the GVCs, especially in agro-industrial products. Cotton and textile sector is one area where Uganda can learn from China and seek to facilitate technological diffusion to transform the country's textile industry. This is because we export almost 95 percent of our cotton as lint and yet China consumes most of its lint domestically and exports apparel and clothing products. This however, can only be done if we develop and implement a conducive policy which facilitates technological transfer and meaningful integration in the global economy, which is currently lacking,” said Munu, a trade and investment researcher.

"China working with Africa for mutual prosperity"

Elizabeth Namusoke, 33, works at the food-processing factory in the Liaoshen park. Before the park opened, Namazzi was jobless. Her husband, a teacher, was struggling to provide for the family on his $100 salary. 

“My salary supplements that of my husband and we are to save a small percentage,” Namazzi said. Namazzi and her husband have established a fruit orchard on their two-acre piece of land. They hope to start selling mangoes to the fruit processing factory in the industrial park.

While inspecting the park in February, president Museveni commended China for investing in Africa. 

"Now China is doing more to support Africa and Uganda in particular. They are working with Africa for mutual prosperity," the president said. 

“What Uganda wants out of industrial capacity cooperation with China is to add values to its agricultural exports. It wants to become a manufacturing economy with agro-processing as the base”, said Martin Luther Munu, a research analyst at Uganda’s Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC).

Industrialization is liberating 

In his 2017 new year’s address, President Museveni said Uganda’s economy had long suffered due to importing more than what it exports to other countries, resulting in a huge negative balance of trade. He said that it was high time the country embarked on mass industrialization to produce for the local market and for export.

He said his government would embark on large scale industrialization, noting that “industrialization is an instrument of liberation and a means of achieving prosperity”.

Museveni cited China, which he said exports to Uganda goods worth US$875 million dollars while importing from Uganda goods worth US$54.7 million dollars and India which exports to Uganda goods worth US$1.154 billion while Uganda only exports to India goods worth US$24.8 million. He termed the trade deficit as a hemorrhage of both money and jobs.

For Moses Tumuramye, a welder, the Liaoshen industrial park set his business free. The 28 year old used to struggle to make doors and windows for his customers. The gasoline generator he was using to weld was driving his operational costs high.

“The industrial park helped bring electricity to the trading centre where my business is located. Now I am able to make a small profit because I no longer have to buy fuel for the generator”, Tumuramye said.

Unlocking Uganda’s potential to industrialize

While speaking at the fifth International Conference on African development (TICAD) in Japan in 2013, president Museveni listed inadequate development of the infrastructure, especially electricity, the railways, the roads, ICT and an undeveloped human resource as some of the challenges hindering Africa and indeed Uganda from developing.

Uganda identified electricity as one of the major bottlenecks to industrialization. The country’s efforts to industrialize took a dive in 2006 when the country was hit by a major power shortage. As a result, some manufacturers moved to neighbors Kenya and Tanzania to take advantage of reliable and cheaper power.

Since 2006, Uganda has invested over $3bn in energy projects. In 2012, the $900m Bujagali hydro project was switched on. It added 250MW to the national grid, bringing much needed stability to energy supply. The subsequent commissioning of several mini hydro power plants led to surplus energy being generated.

According to Uganda Electricity Generation Company Limited (UEGCL), the generators of Uganda’s electricity, Uganda’s installed generation capacity is currently about 862MW – including 100MW from the heavy fuel generators – and effective demand is just short of 600MW. The total redundancy is estimated at about 200MW.

However,authorities believed the surplus will be swallowed up in the next two years when the economy makes a full recovery. Selestino Babungi, the Chief Executive Officer of UMEME, the electricity distributors in Uganda says the surplus will not last a long time.

“Supply should move ahead of demand. In fact, infrastructure, even if it is an industrial investor, they will look at whether there is enough supply for the next five years. Otherwise, no industries will set-up if a country does not have enough power”, he explained.

Currently, two hydro power stations are nearing completion in the central and north of the country.

Isimba (183MW) and Karuma (600MMW) are being built by China Water and Electric and Sino hydro respectively at a cost of around $3bn with financing coming from the Export and Import (EXIM) bank of China. Once on board, the two projects will increase Uganda’s installed capacity to 1,683MW.

Ugandan authorities believed the surplus electricity will easily be scooped up as it seeks to power the various industrial parks across the country.

More industrial parks for investors

Uganda Investment Authority, Uganda’s agency in charge of investments has just finished a project to map the country’s industrial potential based on the comparative advantage regions enjoy over others. 

The authority has embraced an automation drive to cut red tape. 

Some of the industrial parks include the Kampala Industrial and Business Park (KIBP), a 2,200 acre expanse of land close to the capital, Luzira Industrial and Business Park, Bweyogerere Industrial Estate, Jinja Industrial and Business Park, Kasese Industrial and Business Park, Soroti Industrial and Business Park, Mbarara SME Park, Kashari Agricultural Park and Mbale Industrial and Business Park. 

To further drive investment, Uganda’s president Yoweri Museveni has ordered the planning commission of the ministry of Finance to plan and create industrial parks in the major cities based on natural resources.

The commission has identified the northwestern region of the country as a hub for honey, fruits, coffee processing, textiles and fish processing in the Nile Valley. The mid-northern region of Lango has been set aside for investors in textiles, cassava processing, and oil seeds processing.

Munu says that as Uganda opens more industrial parks, the government should think of partnering with Chinese investors as opposed to leaving industrialization to the private sector.

“Uganda's needs to rethink the role of the state in industrial development. The private sector alone cannot transform the industrial sector as some critical investments do not present quick returns and yet this is the incentive for private investments. We need direct state intervention and a well thought Public Private Partnership arrangement which ensures the risks and profits are equitably shared”, Munu asserted.