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罗建波:中国的非洲情怀

文/ 罗建波 中央党校国际战略研究院中国外交研究室主任、教授


中国的非洲情怀

文I罗建波   中央党校国际战略研究院中国外交研究室主任、教授



导读:20世纪以来世界历史发展的一条主线,是中国与非洲国家通过自力更生和团结合作,先是打碎了西方殖民体系获得了民族独立和解放,进而追求国家的全面发展和复兴并推动国际体系更为公平公正的发展

  • 从1955年开始说起

  • 中非命运共同体

  • 中国外交的“初心”

  • 中国外交的正确义利观


如果要问,中国外交的特色究竟是什么?长期以来,中国一直把以非洲国家为主的发展中国家作为自己外交战略的基础,一直注重加强同它们的团结合作,集中体现了中国外交的鲜明特色。历史上,中国坚定支持非洲国家的反帝反殖斗争,当前则注重实现与它们的互利共赢共同发展,集中彰显了中国外交的正确义利观。中国外交自始便有一种特殊的非洲情怀。


从1955年开始说起

今年是周恩来总理诞辰120周年。当年周恩来总理走向亚非世界的历史足迹,有重要的“两步”:

1955年,周恩来总理率团出席亚非万隆会议,提出了著名的“求同存异”方针,推动亚非国家共同达成了反帝反殖的万隆精神。在那次会议上,他让其他亚非国家看到了新中国支持第三世界民族解放运动的坚定决心。1956年,中国同埃及正式建立了外交关系,中国外交第一次拓展到中东和非洲国家。

1963年12月到1964年2月,周恩来历时2个半月,出访了亚非大陆13个国家,提出了中国对外援助的八项原则。中国明确承诺,要帮助第三世界国家走向自力更生、独立自主的发展道路,而且尊重受援国的主权,绝不附带任何条件。一个贫穷国家对另外一些急需帮助的贫穷国家提供援助,这在世界上是不多见的。

坦桑尼亚开国元首尼雷尔,有个著名的“尼雷尔之问”:非洲力量的源泉在哪里?他一生以各种身份先后13次到访中国,并多次会见毛主席。他一次又一次告诉他的同胞,非洲不只是要实现泛非主义的大联合,而且还要注重与东方中国的合作。他不只一次地说过,中国是值得信赖的,它确实在为发展中国家说话。

在尼雷尔的那个时代,中国为支持非洲国家的民族解放,提供了力所能及的帮助。当时中国援助非洲的最大工程,是闻名世界的坦赞铁路。中国耗时6年多、派遣近6万工程人员,与坦赞两国合力修建了长达1860公里的坦赞铁路。65名中国技术人员和专家为此牺牲了生命。在非洲国家追求政治独立的年代,坦赞铁路具有巨大的政治和文化意义。第一,它显著激发了非洲的民族精神。它向世界证明了,非洲人不仅能够用自己的手打破外部枷锁,也能够用自己的手建设这个国家。它对激发非洲人的民族精神和民族自信心,起到了非常关键的作用。第二,坦赞铁路还激发了亚非南南合作的精神。这种精神,直到今天仍然发挥着重要作用。


中非命运共同体

今天或许有人会问,为什么中国那个时候那么穷,还要援助非洲修建坦赞铁路?毛主席曾说过:“已经获得革命胜利的人民,应该援助正在争取解放的人民的斗争,这是我们的国际主义义务。”在毛主席看来,中国共产党人是有国际责任和国际义务的,中国在实现自身政治独立后,还得力所能及地去帮助别人。在他看来,只有全世界受压迫人民都得到了解放,中国的解放才更加具有历史意义。中国共产党人,自始便有浓厚的国际主义精神。

在毛主席眼里,中国帮助别人,其实也帮助了自己。在中国深受美国包围和遏制的年代,他深有感触地讲:“美国只要有机会,总要整我们,因此我们需要朋友。”“谁来支持我们?还不是亚洲、非洲、拉丁美洲的民族解放运动,这是支持我们的最主要的力量。”在毛主席看来,第三世界的反帝反殖运动会在相当程度上削弱和分散帝国主义的力量,战略上有力配合了新中国的反封锁和反遏制斗争,直接或间接地都在支援中国。

历史上,非洲曾给予中国以巨大的外交支持。有三件事,中国人不能忘。第一,非洲朋友把中国抬进联合国。当时,很多亚非国家把恢复中国在联合国的合法席位看作它们自己的事情,把中国的外交胜利看作它们自己的胜利。第二,北京政治风波后来自非洲的外交支持。当时,顶着西方巨大压力到中国访问的第一位外国元首来自非洲,第一位政府首脑来自非洲,第一位外长也来自非洲。作为回应,从1991年开始,每年年初中国外交部长首次出访都是去非洲国家,这一外交惯例一直延续到现在,已经坚持了28年。第三,非洲国家在台湾问题和人权问题上给予中国的一贯支持。

2000多年前,古希腊哲学家和物理学家阿基米德曾说过一句话:给我一个支点,我能够撬起整个地球。对中国而言,非洲国家是中国外交的重要“助力”,是中国撬动与外部世界关系的战略“支点”。20世纪60、70年代,中国需要非洲的帮助以打破美苏对新中国的封锁和制裁,今天也需要非洲国家的支持以制衡某些西方大国对中国崛起的防范与阻遏。中国承诺始终坚持走和平发展道路,但也要有应对复杂外部形势的准备;中国承诺永远不结盟,但也要有外交上的助力和朋友;中国说它永远不寻求建立自己的势力范围,但也要有战略上的回旋空间。非洲,对中国运筹与外部世界关系、提升自身全球影响力,都有着重要的意义。

在当今21世纪,中国对非洲国家又意味着什么?在过去,中国是非洲国家实现政治独立的重要盟友,今天这是它们追求国家发展和民族复兴的重要伙伴,是它们提升非洲国际地位的重要助力。借助于与中国不断深化的伙伴关系,许多非洲国家逐步建立了一种前所未有的新的自信、新的精神,开始以更加自主、更加积极的面貌追求自身发展,开始以更加独立、更加有利的方式融入世界体系。

20世纪以来世界历史发展的一条主线,是中国与非洲国家通过自力更生和团结合作,先是打碎了西方殖民体系获得了民族独立和解放,进而追求国家的全面发展和复兴并推动国际体系更为公平公正的发展。中国与非洲国家,来自两个大陆,两种文明,从它们一开始接触之始就具有重大的世界历史意义。


中国外交的“初心”

今天,一些发展中国家在问,一个快速发展的中国是否还是它们的一员,是否还与它们站在一起?

这个问题,涉及到中国自己的身份认同。中国的身份认同是什么?国际社会喜欢把中国称为新兴大国(emerging power),其实这个概念只是表达了一个经济体量的增长,并没有更深刻的历史内涵。中国更喜欢把自己称为“发展中大国”。

在中国人眼里,“发展中国家”从一开始就不只是一个纯粹的经济概念。它不只是有经济属性,还有丰富的历史属性、政治属性和文化属性。在中国的外交思维中,当代“发展中国家”概念在很大程度上是过去“第三世界”的延续和发展,当代发展中国家的南南合作也与过去亚非万隆会议、不结盟运动和七十七国集团的活动一脉相承。虽然第三世界各国早已实现了政治独立,国际形势也发生了很大变化,但发展中国家仍然面临实现经济发展和国家现代化的发展任务,在国际事务中也面临相似的政治和外交需求。所以,在中国人看来,“发展中国家”概念既承载一种历史记忆,又有一种现实需要,还有一种情感认同,因而有着一种特殊的归属感、亲近感、认同感。

中国外交的“初心”在哪里?中国外交自然需要服务于中国自身发展和复兴,同时也要为世界做出力所能及的贡献。其中重要方面,就是要关注世界最大多数的国家,最大多数的民族,最大多数的人民的利益,它们就是众多的发展中国家。中国一再强调,它将始终与发展中国家站在一起,一如既往地加强与发展中国家团结合作仍将是中国外交的重要方面。中国对发展中国家的外交理念和政策,集中表达了中国外交的“初心”。

这一初心,赋予中国外交一种特殊的非洲情怀。在中国人眼里,非洲是“希望的大陆”,而非“绝望的大陆”。在中国人眼里,非洲在历史上有过灿烂的文明,今后也将能够对世界发展产生重大影响。在中国人眼里,非洲不只是国际社会的受援者,它完全有能力也有信心主要依靠自己的力量实现非洲的发展和复兴。非洲需要的不是援助,它们更需要平等、尊重以及真诚的互利合作。在冷战后西方国家相继冷落非洲之时,中国显著加强了对非洲的重视程度,从而不断推动中非合作迈向新的历史高度。


中国外交的正确义利观

2013年,习近平主席在访问非洲时提出了“真实亲诚”的对非合作理念。他指出,对待非洲朋友我们讲一个“真”字,开展对非合作我们讲一个“实”字,加强中非友好我们讲一个“亲”字,解决合作中的问题我们讲一个“诚”字。随后,他明确提出并全面阐述了对发展中国家的正确义利观。坚持正确义利观,做到义利兼顾,要讲信义、重情义、扬正义、树道义。

近年来,中非双方以“一带一路”为纽带,不断推动中非互利合作迈向新台阶。亚吉铁路、蒙内铁路、安哥拉本格拉铁路、尼日利亚阿(阿布贾)卡(卡杜拉)铁路和拉(拉各斯)伊(伊巴丹)铁路等已经通车或正在建设,肯尼亚拉姆港、尼日利亚莱基深水港、达累斯萨拉姆港扩建项目正在稳步推进,赞比亚中国经济贸易合作区、埃及苏伊士经贸合作区、尼日利亚莱基自由贸易区、埃塞东方工业园等一大批境外经贸合作区发展迅速,中非互利合作的成效正在全面显现。

今天的埃塞,见证着中非合作的魅力。它的第一条高速公路,第一条城市轻轨,第一条电气化铁路,第一座风力发电厂,第一座现代化的工业园,第一所现代化的职业学校,都是中国人投资、承建,或者援建的。得益于与中国的合作,埃塞经济增长率自2004年以来一直位居世界前列。以前西方人总是妄加指责,声称中国在非洲搞“新殖民主义”。埃塞没有多少资源,但中国人却在用自己的方式实现与埃塞的互利共赢共同发展。

为支持非洲的减贫与发展,中国不断推动中非合作论坛机制的建设和发展,在这一框架下不断推出对非合作新思路新举措。过去三年里,中国为非洲国家提供了超过600亿美元的资金,支持中非双方开展十大合作计划。中国还发起成立亚投行、金砖新开发银行、丝路基金、南南合作援助基金、中国—联合国和平与发展基金等,这些新的发展倡议和举措在很大程度上能够惠及非洲发展。2017年厦门金砖峰会开创了“金砖+”合作模式,积极利用金砖组织带动更多发展中国家实现发展。中国还积极推动联合国、G20等重大国际组织更多关注和支持非洲发展。比如,2016年杭州G20峰会不仅邀请了多个非洲国家与会,还提出支持非洲和最不发达国家工业化合作倡议。

当前很多非洲国家都面临基础设施滞后、资金短缺、人才不足三大发展瓶颈,因此中非合作需要着力推动非洲的互联互通、中非产能合作以及非洲人力资源开发。中国过去四十年之所以能实现经济的快速发展,离不开对基础设施建设的大量投入,离不开对全球产业转移的大量承接,离不开对人才培养的高度重视。随着中国经济结构的转型升级,中国大量的资金、产业和技术正在走出去。非洲需要及时抓住这一全球产业转移的新浪潮,全面参与“一带一路”建设,进而推动非洲大陆实现现代化和工业化。

中非双方尤其需要注重开展治国理政经验的交流,在互学互鉴中推动非洲国家的能力建设。当前非洲国家“向东看”,不只是看好中国不断增加的对外投资和援助,也希望借鉴和学习中国的发展和治国理政经验。这里所言治国理政经验,既有具体的经济和社会发展经验,也有更为宏观意义上的国家发展道路选择,后者对发展中国家同样具有重要意义。中国发展模式,在本质上是发展中国家独立自主实现现代化的成功探索,它向世界证明了发展中国家完全可以独立自主地探索出适合自身发展的道路。以前很长时期里,发展中国家要发展,要么学习西方模式,要么学习苏联模式,现在中国和东亚国家发展的相对成功,确实向它们展现了实现现代化的另一种途径,让他们在思考自己发展道路时多了一份参照(编辑:张梅) 


英文版:

China’s special bond with Africa

By Luo Jianbo, Professor and Director at the Institute for International Strategic Studies, Party School of the Central Committee of the CPC    Translated by Xu Chengzhi



What is the characteristic of Chinese diplomacy? For a long time, China has always regarded developing countries, most of which are African countries, as the foundation of its foreign policy making. It has always focused on strengthening unity and cooperation with them, which reflects the distinctive features of China's diplomacy. In history, China firmly supports the anti-imperialist and anti-colonial struggles of African countries. At present, it focuses on achieving mutual-beneficial common development with them, and highlights “the values of justice and interests” in conducting relationship with African countries. Chinese in fact has a special bond with African countries from the beginning of their relationship.


Starting from 1955

This year marks the 120th anniversary of Premier Zhou Enlai’s birth. When Premier Zhou Enlai embarked on the historical tour of the Asian-African world more than half a century ago, there were two important "steps":

In 1955, Premier Zhou Enlai led a delegation to attend the Asia-Africa Bandung Conference and put forward the famous policy of "seeking common ground while reserving differences" to encourage the Asian-African countries to reach a consensus in their anti-imperialist and anti-colonial efforts. At that meeting, he demonstrated to other Asian and African countries the firm determination of the new China to support the national liberation movement in the Third World. In 1956, China officially established diplomatic relations with Egypt, and Chinese diplomacy therefore expanded to the Middle East and African countries for the first time.

From December 1963 to February 1964, Zhou Enlai spent two and a half months visiting 13 countries in Asia and Africa and proposed the eight principles guiding China's foreign aid. China pledged to help third-world countries move towards a self-reliant and independent development path, and respect the sovereignty of recipient countries, without any conditions attached. A poor country provides assistance to other poor countries that are in desperate need of help, which is rare in the world.

The late Julius Kambarage Nyerere, founding father of the United Republic of Tanzania, once put forward well-known question: Where is the source of African power? During his lifetime, he visited China 13 times in various capacities and met with Chairman Mao on multiple occasions. He told his compatriots again and again that Africa is not only about achieving a broad alliance under Pan-Africanism, but also focusing on cooperation with the East. He has said more than once that China is trustworthy and it is indeed speaking for developing countries.

In the era of Nyerere, China provided assistance within its ability to support the national liberation of African countries. At that time, China’s largest project to aid Africa was the world-famous Tanzania-Zambia Railway. China has spent more than six years dispatching nearly 60,000 engineers and working with Tanzania to build a 1,860-kilometer-long Tanzania-Zambia railway. Sixty-five Chinese technicians and experts have sacrificed their lives for the project. During the times of African countries pursuing political independence, the Tanzania-Zambia Railway has enormous political and cultural significance. First, it has greatly inspired the national aspiration of Africa. It proves to the world that Africans can not only break the shackles with their own hands, but also build their country with their own hands. It played a critical role in boosting self-confidence of Africans. Second, the Tanzania-Zambia Railway has also highlighted the spirit of South-South cooperation between Asia and Africa. This spirit still plays an important role until today.


China-Africa Community of Shared Future

Some people may ask today that why China, which was so poor at that time, still decided to assist Africa in building the Tanzania-Zambia Railway. Chairman Mao once said: "The people who have won the revolutionary victory should assist the people who are fighting for liberation. This is our internationalist obligation." In Chairman Mao’s view, the Chinese Communists have an international obligation that, after realizing its political independence, China should also help others as much as it can. In his view, only when the oppressed people of the world were liberated would the liberation of China be more historical. As shown, the Chinese Communists have a strong internationalist spirit from the beginning.

In the eyes of Chairman Mao, China, by aiding others, actually helped itself. In the time when China was completely surrounded and contained by the United States, he said emotionally: "As long as there is an opportunity, the United States always launches attacks at us, therefore we need friends." "Who will support us? It’s none other than the national liberation movement in Asia, Africa and Latin America. They are the most important force supporting us." In Chairman Mao’s view, the anti-imperialist and anti-colonial movement of the Third World has weakened and diverted the power of imperialism to a considerable extent. Through direct or indirect means, They strategically supported China’s anti-blockade and anti-containment efforts. 

Historically, Africa has provided China with enormous diplomatic assistance. There are three incidents that the Chinese will always keep in mind. First, African friends have voted China into the United Nations. At that time, many Asian and African countries regarded the restoration of China’s legitimate seat in the United Nations as their own, and regarded China’s diplomatic victory as their own victory. Second, after the Beijing political turmoil in 1989, diplomatic support from Africa provided valuable. At that time, the first foreign head of state who visited China despite tremendous pressure from the West was from Africa. The first head of government also came from Africa, and so was the first foreign minister. In response, since 1991, the first overseas visit by Chinese foreign ministers at the beginning of each year has always been African countries, without any exception, for the past 28 years. Third, African countries have steadfastly sided with China on the Taiwan issue and human rights issue.

More than 2,000 years ago, the ancient Greek philosopher and physicist Archimedes once said: Give me a fulcrum, I shall move the world. For China, African countries are an important force for China's diplomacy and a strategic "fulcrum" for China to conduct relations with the outside world. In the 1960s and 1970s, China needed Africa's help to break the blockade and sanctions imposed by the United States and the Soviet Union. Today, the support of African countries is necessary to counterbalance the deterrence and containment efforts against of the rise of China by certain Western powers. China promises to always adhere to the path of peaceful development, but it must also be prepared to deal with the complicated external situation; China promises to not form alliance, but also needs to have friends and their assistance; China says it will never seek to establish its own sphere of influence, but there must also be a strategic maneuver room. Africa is of great significance to China in conducting external world relations and promoting its global influence.

What does China mean for African countries in the 21st century? In the past, China was an important ally of African countries to achieve political independence. Today it is an important partner for their pursuit of national development and national rejuvenation, and an important boost for promoting Africa's international status. With the deepening partnership with China, many African countries have gradually established an unprecedented new self-confidence and new spirit, and began to pursue their own development with a more independent and more positive look, starting to integrate into the world in a more independent and more favorable way. 

One of the major themes of world history development since the 20th century is that China and African countries have broken the Western colonial system and achieved national independence and liberation through self-reliance, unity and cooperation. They’re pursuing an all-round development and national rejuvenation, which in itself helps promote the international system to become fairer. China and Africa, the two continents, and the two civilizations have a historical significance since the first day of their interaction.

 

The original aspiration of the Chinese diplomacy

Today, some developing countries are asking whether a fast-growing China is still a member of them and is it still standing with them?

This issue involves China's own identity. What is China’s identity? The international community likes to call China an emerging power. In fact, this concept only expresses the growth of an economic volume and does not have a deeper historical connotation. China prefers to call itself a "big developing country."

In the eyes of the Chinese, "developing countries" are not just a purely economic concept in itself. It has not only economic attributes, but also rich historical, political and cultural attributes. In China's diplomatic thinking, the concept of contemporary "developing countries" is largely the continuation and development of the "third world". The South-South cooperation of contemporary developing countries is also the natural continuation of Asian-African Bandung Conference, Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77. Although the Third World countries have already achieved political independence and the international situation has undergone great changes, developing countries still face the task of achieving economic development and national modernization, and they face similar political and diplomatic needs in international affairs. Therefore, in the eyes of the Chinese, the concept of "developing countries" carries both a historical memory, a realistic need, and an emotional identity, and thus has a special sense of belonging, affinity, and identity.

What is the original aspiration of Chinese diplomacy? China's diplomacy naturally serves China's own development and rejuvenation, and at the same time, we must make contributions to the world as much as we can. The important aspect is to pay attention to the interests of the majority of countries, the majority of ethnic groups, and the majority of people. They are numerous developing countries. China has repeatedly stressed that it will always stand with developing countries and, as always, strengthening cooperation with developing countries will remain an important aspect of China's diplomacy. China’s diplomatic ideas and policies toward developing countries are the most representative of the original aspiration of China’s diplomacy.

Such a mission has given China's diplomacy a special African sentiment. In the eyes of the Chinese, Africa is the "land of hope" rather than the "desperate continent." In the eyes of the Chinese, Africa has had a splendid civilization in history and will have a major impact on world development in the future. In the eyes of the Chinese, Africa is not only a recipient of the international aid. It is fully capable and confident to realize its development and revival of Africa by relying on its own strength. What Africa needs is not aid. They need equality, respect and sincere cooperation. At a time when Western countries successively left Africa after the Cold War, China in contrast emphasized more on Africa, thus continuously advancing China-Africa cooperation to a new historical height.


The values of justice and interests in Chinese diplomacy

In 2013, President Xi Jinping put forward the guidelines of developing Africa relations featuring “sincerity, real results, affinity and good faith”. He points out, in treating African friends, we stress the importance of "sincerity". True friends are the most valuable. In conducting cooperation with Africa, we stress the importance of "real results". In strengthening China-Africa friendship, we stress the importance of "affinity". In resolving problems that may crop up in cooperation, we stress the importance of "good faith". Subsequently, he proposed and comprehensively expounded the “correct view of justice and interests” in dealing with developing countries. President Xi notes, we should follow the right concept of morality and interests, attaching importance to both morality and interests. This means we should act in good faith, value friendship, champion justice and uphold morality.

In recent years, China and Africa have used the "Belt and Road" as a link to continuously push China-Africa cooperation to a new level. The Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway, the Nairobi-Mombasa Railway, the Benguela Railway, the Nigerian Abuja-Kadula Railway and the Lagos-Ibadan Railway have been opened or under construction. The expansion of projects in Kenyan port of Lamu, Nigeria's Lekki Deepwater Port and the port Dar es Salaam has been steadily advancing. Zambia's China Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone, Egypt's Suez Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone, Nigeria's Lekki Free Trade Zone, and Ethiopia's Eastern Industrial Park are developing rapidly. The outcomes of China-Africa cooperation is now being fully manifested.

Today's Ethiopia witnesses the benefit of China-Africa cooperation. Its first expressway, the first urban light rail, the first electrified railway, the first wind power plant, the first modern industrial park, and the first modern vocational school, all are invested and built, or assisted by the Chinese side. Thanks to cooperation with China, Ethiopia's economic growth rate has been among the highest in the world since 2004.  Some Westerners have accused China of engaging in "new colonialism" in Africa. Ethiopia has not much resources, but the Chinese are using their own means to achieve mutual benefit and common development with Ethiopia.

In order to support Africa's poverty alleviation and development, China has promoted the construction and development of the China-Africa Cooperation Forum mechanism, and under this framework, it has continuously introduced new ideas and new measures for cooperation with Africa. In the past three years, China has provided more than 60 billion U.S. dollars to African countries and supported China and Africa to carry out the top ten cooperation plans. China has also initiated the establishment of the AIIB, the BRICS New Development Bank, the Silk Road Fund, the South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund, and the China-United Nations Peace and Development Fund. These new development initiatives can largely benefit Africa's development. In 2017, the Xiamen Bricks Summit opened a “BRICS+” cooperation model and actively used the BRICS organization to drive more developing countries to achieve development. China has also actively promoted major international organizations such as the United Nations and the G20 to pay more attention to and support Africa's development. For example, the 2016 Hangzhou G20 Summit not only invited a number of African countries to participate, but also proposed support for industrial cooperation initiatives in Africa and LDCs.

At present, many African countries face three major development bottlenecks namely,  inadequate infrastructure, lack of professional and skilled personnel, and funding shortage. Therefore, China-Africa cooperation needs to focus on promoting connectivity in Africa, China-Africa industrial capacity cooperation, and human resource development in Africa. The reason why China has been able to achieve rapid economic development in the past 40 years is partly due to the massive investment in infrastructure construction. China also benefits from the large-scale undertaking of global industrial transfer. It also has something to do with its emphasis on education and professional training. With the transformation and upgrading of China's economic structure, China's enormous amount of capital, industry and technology are going out. Africa needs to seize this new wave of global industrial transfer in a timely manner and participate fully in the construction of the “Belt and Road Initiative” to promote the modernization and industrialization of the African continent.

In particular, China and Africa need to focus on the exchange of experience in governance and promote the capacity building of African countries. At present, African countries are "looking eastward". They are not only optimistic about China's increasing outbound investment and foreign assistance, but also hope to learn from China's development and governance experience. The experience of governance here is not only specific economic and social development experience, but also more of a choice of national development path. The latter is also of great significance to developing countries. China's development model represents essentially a successful exploration and independent realization of modernization by a developing country. It proves to the world that developing countries can independently explore the path suitable for their own development. For a long time, developing countries had to, either learn the Western model or study the Soviet model. Now the relative success of China and East Asian countries has indeed shown them a new path to achieve growth. There is one more example for African countries when they look at how to development their own nations.